Climate Variability and Change in High Elevation Regions: Past, Present & Future

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Springer Science & Business Media, Jul 31, 2003 - Nature - 282 pages
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Glaciers in the Andes are particularly important natural archives of present and past climatic and environmental changes, in significant part because of the N-S trend of this topographic barrier and its influence on the atmospheric circulation of the southern hemisphere. Strong gradients in the seasonality and amount of precipitation exist between the equator and 30 S. Large differences in amount east and west of the Andean divide also occur, as well as a change from tropical summer precipitation (additionally modified by the seasonal shift of the circulation belts) to winter precipitation in the west wind belt (e. g. , Yuille, 1999; Garraud and Aceituno, 2001). The so-called 'dry axis' lies between the tropical and extra tropical precipitation regimes (Figure 1). The high mountain desert within this axis responds most sensitively to the smallest changes in effective moisture. An important hydro-meteorological feature on a seasonal to inter-annual time-scale is the occurrence of EN SO events, which strongly control the mass balance of glaciers in this area (e. g. , Wagnon et ai. , 2001; Francou et ai. , in press). The precipitation pattern is an important factor for the interpretation of climatic and environmental records extracted from ice cores, because much of this information is related to conditions at the actual time of precipitation, and this is especially so for stable isotope records. Several ice cores have recently been drilled to bedrock in this area. From Huascanin (Thompson et ai. , 1995), Sajama (Thompson et ai.
 

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Contents

PAST PRESENT AND FUTURE
1
A REVIEW OF POSSIBLE IMPACTS
5
VARIABILITY OF FREEZING LEVELS MELTING SEASON INDICATORS AND SNOW COVER FOR SELECTED HIGHELEVATION AND CO...
33
COMPARISON OF LOWERTROPOSPHERIC TEMPERATURE CLIMATOLOGIES AND TRENDS AT LOW AND HIGH ELEVATION RADIOSO...
53
OBSERVATIONS AND MODEL RESULTS
75
THE IMPACT THAT ELEVATION HAS ON THE ENSO SIGNAL IN PRECIPITATION RECORDS FROM THE GULF OF ALASKA REGION
101
RECENT CHANGES IN GLACIER REGIME
123
TROPICAL GLACIER AND ICE CORE EVIDENCE OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON ANNUAL TO MILLENNIAL TIME SCALE
137
WHAT IS RECORDED UNDER EXTREME ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS?
157
20THCENTURY VARIATIONS IN THE CONTEXT OF THE PAST 400 YEARS
177
FREQUENCYDEPENDENT CLIMATE SIGNAL IN UPPER AND LOWER FOREST BORDER TREE RINGS IN THE MOUNTAINS OF THE GRE...
233
UPPER YELLOWSTONE RIVER FLOW AND TELECONNECTIONS WITH PACIFIC BASIN CLIMATE VARIABILITY DURING THE PAST TH...
245
ECOSYSTEM RESPONSES TO CLIMATIC VARIABILITY
263
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Page 229 - Peterson, MJ 2000. Warm-season temperatures since 1600 BC reconstructed from Tasmanian tree rings and their relationship to large-scale sea surface temperature anomalies. Climate Dynamics 16:79-91.

About the author (2003)

Dr Henry F. Diaz is a Research Meteorologist in the Earth System Research Laboratory at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). He has worked on a variety of climate issues at NOAA over the last 15 years, particularly the impact of climatic variation on water resources of the western United States. He is recognized as an expert on the El Ni o Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon and coedited El Ni o: Historical and Paleoclimatic Aspects of the Southern Oscillation, also published by Cambridge University Press (1992).

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