Climate Variability and Change in High Elevation Regions: Past, Present & Future
Glaciers in the Andes are particularly important natural archives of present and past climatic and environmental changes, in significant part because of the N-S trend of this topographic barrier and its influence on the atmospheric circulation of the southern hemisphere. Strong gradients in the seasonality and amount of precipitation exist between the equator and 30° S. Large differences in amount east and west of the Andean divide also occur, as well as a change from tropical summer precipitation (additionally modified by the seasonal shift of the circulation belts) to winter precipitation in the west wind belt (e. g. , Yuille, 1999; Garraud and Aceituno, 2001). The so-called 'dry axis' lies between the tropical and extra tropical precipitation regimes (Figure 1). The high mountain desert within this axis responds most sensitively to the smallest changes in effective moisture. An important hydro-meteorological feature on a seasonal to inter-annual time-scale is the occurrence of EN SO events, which strongly control the mass balance of glaciers in this area (e. g. , Wagnon et ai. , 2001; Francou et ai. , in press). The precipitation pattern is an important factor for the interpretation of climatic and environmental records extracted from ice cores, because much of this information is related to conditions at the actual time of precipitation, and this is especially so for stable isotope records. Several ice cores have recently been drilled to bedrock in this area. From Huascanin (Thompson et ai. , 1995), Sajama (Thompson et ai.
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PAST PRESENT AND FUTURE
A REVIEW OF POSSIBLE IMPACTS
VARIABILITY OF FREEZING LEVELS MELTING SEASON INDICATORS AND SNOW COVER FOR SELECTED HIGHELEVATION AND CO...
COMPARISON OF LOWERTROPOSPHERIC TEMPERATURE CLIMATOLOGIES AND TRENDS AT LOW AND HIGH ELEVATION RADIOSO...
OBSERVATIONS AND MODEL RESULTS
THE IMPACT THAT ELEVATION HAS ON THE ENSO SIGNAL IN PRECIPITATION RECORDS FROM THE GULF OF ALASKA REGION
RECENT CHANGES IN GLACIER REGIME
TROPICAL GLACIER AND ICE CORE EVIDENCE OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON ANNUAL TO MILLENNIAL TIME SCALE
WHAT IS RECORDED UNDER EXTREME ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS?
20THCENTURY VARIATIONS IN THE CONTEXT OF THE PAST 400 YEARS
FREQUENCYDEPENDENT CLIMATE SIGNAL IN UPPER AND LOWER FOREST BORDER TREE RINGS IN THE MOUNTAINS OF THE GRE...
UPPER YELLOWSTONE RIVER FLOW AND TELECONNECTIONS WITH PACIFIC BASIN CLIMATE VARIABILITY DURING THE PAST TH...
ECOSYSTEM RESPONSES TO CLIMATIC VARIABILITY
20th century 5l8Ojce accumulation air temperature American Cordillera analysis Andean associated Atlantic atmospheric circulation average Basin Beniston Bradley Cerro Tapado chronologies Climate Change climate variability climatological cloud cover coherent composite Cordillera decade decrease Diaz elevation station ENSO environmental Figure Francou freezing level Geophys geopotential height Glacial glacier mass balance global Hastenrath Holocene Huascaran humidity ice core impacts increase indicate interannual IPCC isotopic latitude locations long-term low elevation mean annual temperature modes moisture Mount Logan mountain regions negative Nino Northern Hemisphere Nothofagus pumilio observed Ocean Oscillation patterns period precipitation radiosonde range Reanalysis records retreat Sajama scales Sea Surface Temperature seasonal shown signal simulations snow cover southern sector spatial species station pairs statistically significant streamflow summer temperature trends temperature variations Thompson Tibetan Plateau transport anomaly tree-ring tropical Pacific troposphere values Villalba Vuille warm ENSO events winter Yellowstone River