Politics and Petroleum in Ecuador

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Transaction Publishers - History - 432 pages
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In 1972 Ecuador began to produce and export petroleum in the Amazon interior, and the formulation and execution of the petroleum policy became central to the political life of the nation. The nation's armed forces seized political power that same year and continued to rule until the reestablishment of democratic pluralist government in 1979. In this book, John D. Martz probes the differences and similarities between military authoritarianism and democratic pluralism through an analysis of the politics of petroleum in Ecuador.

The Ecuadorian experience provides an ideal laboratory to test the policymaking characteristics and the overall performances of the two regimes ideal-types. Martz uses a textured and detailed analysis of global oil companies and nationalist politics to trace the growth and evolution of Ecuador's petroleum industry. The course of partisan and sectoral politics and the internal workings of military politics are also examined. Against this interplay of politics and the nationalistic struggle against multinational pressures, Martz compares policymaking under military and civilian government.

John D. Martz is a professor of political science at Pennsylvania State University. He is the author and editor of more than a dozen books on Latin American politics and was the editor of the Latin American Research Review from 1975 to 1980.

 

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Contents

1 Studying Petroleum Policy in Ecuador
3
2 A Prehistory of Petroleum
38
3 Policies of Systemic Change
66
Military Authoritarianism and Bourgeois Statism
95
4 Reformism and the Nationalistic Impulse
97
5 Multinationals and Antinationalism
131
6 The State Fights Back
160
7 Accommodation and Adjustment
185
9 Fuerza del Cambio and Political Reality
247
10 Struggling for Competence and Control
271
11 Stability and Stagnation
302
12 Problems of Petroleum Revitalization
336
Conclusion
370
Appendices
405
Bibliography
416
Index
431

8 Return to the Barracks
212
Democratic Pluralism and Bourgeois Reformism
245

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Page 7 - The state did not merely reflect the class structure but, through its control of economic and political resources, itself shaped the class system. The state was viewed as the prime regulator, coordinator, and pacesetter of the entire national system, the apex of the Latin American pyramid from which patronage, wealth, power, and programs flowed. The...

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