Bicycles in American Highway Planning: The Critical Years of Policy-Making, 1969–1991
The United States differs from other developed nations in the extent to which its national bicycle transportation policy relies on the use of unmodified roadways, with cyclists obeying the same traffic regulations as motor vehicles. This policy—known as “vehicular cycling”—evolved between 1969, when the “10-speed boom” saw a sharp increase in adult bicycling, and 1991, when the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials adopted an official policy that on-road bikeways were not desirable. This policy resulted from a growing realization by highway engineers and experienced club cyclists that they had parallel interests: the cyclists preferred to ride on highways, because most bikeways were not designed for high speeds and pack riding; and the highway engineers did not want to divert funding from roadways to construct bikeways. Using contemporary magazine articles, government reports, and archival material from industry lobbying groups and national cycling organizations, this book tells the story of how America became a nation of bicyclists without bikeways.
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American Traffic Planning 18701945
European Bicycle Planning 18901990
3 Early American Bicycle Planning 19651975
ThirdStream Bicycle Planning 19671974
5 Backlash 19731977
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AASHTO adult Allen American bicycle planning American Wheelmen Association author’s interview bicy bicycle and pedestrian Bicycle Commuting bicycle facilities bicycle industry Bicycle Organizations Bicycle Safety bicycle transportation bicyclists bike boom bike lanes bike paths Bike World BikeFed Bikeway Design Bikeway Planning bikeways Bill Wilkinson Burden California cars club cyclists commission Committee Commuting CPSC curb cut Cycle History Davis drivers Effective Cycling engineering Federal Highway Forester’s Fred DeLong funding George Herbert Stancer good-roads implement issue Jay Townley John Forester League of American league’s left turns Lott MAUDEP McClintock membership Morgan Groves motor vehicle MUTCD National Cycle nationwide NCUTLO parking percent planners problem Product Safety proficiency projects regulations Research ride riders road roadway Robert Sommer Ross Petty rules Schwinn sidepath sidewalk Sommer standards street tion traffic transit urban users vehicular cycling York