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The Origins of Species and Species Differences
The Species as the Keystone of Evolution
adaptive radiation alleles animal species Bergmann's rule betularia bird species breeding chapter characters chromosomes clutch color considered correlated crossing-over D. S. Falconer dark-colored Darwin finches death rate decrease differences differential dimorphism dispersal dominant E. B. Ford E. O. Wilson ecogeographic ecological niches effects environment environmental equilibrium evolution by natural evolutionary evolutionists example extinction Figure fitness gametes Gause's rule gene flow gene frequency gene pool genetic variations geneticists genotypes Haldane heritable heterozygote immigration increase independent assortment indi insular interactions interspecific islands isolating mechanisms J. B. S. Haldane Kettlewell Mayr Mendel's mortality mutation natural populations natural selection negative density-dependent number of individuals number of species occur offspring operation organisms origin pairs of alleles parental species phenotype population genetics predation predicted random recessive recombination related species reproduction Rubinoff Selander selection forces selection pressures selective advantage speciation student survival sympatry theory tion topic University Press viduals virus warbler York