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ABSORPTION OF LASER ENERGY
absorbed absorption alloys aluminum approximately AVCO cal/g ceramic circuit CO2 laser copper cutting depth of focus divergence drill holes ELEC PHOTON SOURCES electron beam welding energy density equation focal length focused spot diameter heat affected zone heat capacity heat of fusion heat of vaporization high power hole depth hole drilling HOLOBEAM increase infrared intensity joules KW FAST FLOW laser beam laser drilling laser energy laser power laser processing laser system laser trimming laser wavelength laser welding lasing latent heat lens lenses machining material removal melting metals milliseconds Nickel operated optical peak power penetration permission of Western power density pulse length pulsed laser Q-switched laser RAYTHEON reflectivity ruby laser seam welding shown in Figure silicon SLOW FLOW specific heat spherical aberration stainless steel substrate surface TABLE target thermal conduction thermal diffusivity thermal time constants thin film transverse mode typical volume watts wavelength Western Electric workpiece