This 1980 book considers the patterns of population fluctuations of animals and intraspecific social relations by means of comparative methods and discusses the evolution of population regulation mechanisms and social relations. The author proposes that parental care has evolved in environments in which it is difficult for the young to obtain food, whilst high fecundity has evolved in the opposite environment. He presents evidence from a wide range of organisms to argue that during evolution animals repeatedly face the 'choice' of two strategies - low fecundity combined with parental protection, or high fecundity - and that this choice determined the amplitude, regularity and associated main factors of population fluctuations as well as the main characteristics of social relations as expressed in group life or dispersed living involving territory. Although many examples are drawn from insects, with which the author is most familiar, mammal, birds and other animal groups are also examined in depth.
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Evolution of reproductive rates
Egg numbers of fishes
Clutch size of birds
Litter size of mammals
Seed numbers of plants
A critique of rK selection theory
Strategies of survival
Survivorship curves of aquatic invertebrates amphibians
Survivorship curves of mammals
Survivorship curves of insects
Discussion on the evolution of reproductive rates and sur
Population fluctuations of microbes and invertebrate animals
Survivorship curves of birds
adult males animals ants arboreal baboon bees beetles behaviour birds breeding season caste differentiation cicadas climatic clutch colony commencement of breeding cycle defended density developed dominance hierarchy drawn early mortality ecological egg number eggs laid environment eusocial example factors fecundity feeding females fishes freshwater graph grassland grouse habitat hatching high fecundity home ranges Hymenoptera increase Itani Iwata Japan Japanese Japanese macaque large number larvae lemmings life-span life-table litter living low fecundity mammals mating maximum-minimum ratio Miyashita monkey monogamous nest nidifugous number of eggs number of individuals outbreaks oviposition ovoviviparous pairs parasites parasitoid parental passerine period pest pheromone planktonic planthopper plants polygynous polygynous group population fluctuation predators prey primates queen r-strategist red-tailed monkey relation reproductive Sakagami shows social insects solitary species spider stage stingless bees studied survival-rate survivorship curve Table termites terrestrial territorial defence theory trees troop tropical ungulates wasps workers young
Page 395 - Bull., 21:1-55. . 1976. A revision of the poison-arrow frogs of the genus Phyllobates Bibron in Sagra (Family Dendrobatidae).