The Origins of State Organizations in Prehistoric Highland Fars, Southern Iran: Excavations at Tall-e Bakun
The late prehistoric Bakun A culture in Fars is a major source of information on the initial development of the evolutionary path which vertical mobile pastoralists of highland Iran may have taken to develop state organisations. Long before the appearance of administrative technology and physical segregation of administration, production, storage, and residential units in urban centers of the second half of the fourth millennium BC, Tall-e Bakun A, near Persepolis in the Marv Dasht region of Fars, stands as one of the precursors to the complex societies of the fourth millennium BC early urban centres. The present publication presents the final report of the last season's excavations at Tall-e Bakun A. The archaeological materials from this season are combined with the results of other pertinent data from surveys and excavations in the Near East to provide a foundation upon which pre-state social evolution in late prehistoric highland Fars has been reconstructed and interpreted. Based on the analysis of the available archaeological data as well as historical and ethnographic sources, Alizadeh argues that the specialised manufacture and administrative aspects at Tall-e Bakun A indicate the existence of differential status at the site, where a few families or ranking individuals controlled the manufacture and flow of goods.
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METHODOLOGY AND THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS
GEOGRAPHY ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES AND LAND USE IN FARS IRAN
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37 Sieve TBA Alizadeh Animal Figurine BB Animal Figurine Clay archaeological architectural Baked clay Bakun A Register Bakun B2 Band BB 28 Sieve BB 37 Level BB 37 Sieve Behbahan Bldg Bowls Buff ware Building central ceramics Clay Sieve TBA Copper cultural decorated designs door sealings Egami excavations Fars phase Figurine Clay Sieve flint highland Iran Khuzestan Lapui Late Fars layers Level IV OIP Marv Dasht Plain Mesopotamia Middle Fars millennium B.C. mobile pastoralism mobile pastoralist mobile tribes motifs mound mudbrick Neolithic nomadic Open Area TBA painted pottery pottery proto-Elamite Provenance Elevation Description Qashqaii radiocarbon dates redware region samples settlement societies Spindle Whorl BB Spindle Whorl Clay Square BB Stamp Seal Stone Sieve TBA Sumner Susa Susiana Tall-e Bakun Tall-e Gap Tall-e Jari Tall-e Malyan Tall-e Mushki Tehran Token BB vessels villages visible inclusion walls Whorl Clay Sieve Zagros Zagros Mountains