The Death of Napoleon: the Last Campaign
Napoleon Bonaparte died on May 5th, 1821 on the island of St Helena from complications of stomach cancer proven by autopsy. However, when analyses of trace elements on single strands of hair became available in the 1960s, it was found that some samples of his hair contained increased levels of arsenic which lead to claims that he had been deliberately poisoned. This book written by an expert toxiciologist and a surgeon/Napoleon scholar examines the proof for the diagnosis of stomach cancer. Also it reviews the evidence for arsenic poisoning and denounces this as a myth, based upon the absence of all the specific features and many of the cardinal non-specific features of arsenic poisoning, thus confirming that the Emperor died from stomach cancer.
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19th century abdominal pain abscess adhesion amoebic amounts of arsenic analyzed antimony Antommarchi April Arnott arsenic content arsenic ingestion arsenic trioxide arsenic-containing autopsy autopsy report body Calomel chronic arsenic poisoning clinical colour constipation core cyanide Death of Napoleon diagnosis of arsenic diaphragm diarrhoea died disease dose Emperor Emperor’s hair enema external contamination features of arsenic fluid Forshufvud gastric cancer gastrointestinal hair analysis hair arsenic levels hair levels hair powder hair samples Hamilton Smith hepatitis hiccupping Hindmarsh inflammation internal Island Last Campaign left lobe lethal liver London Longwood House loss Marsh test Medical medicine membrane Museum Napoleon Bonaparte Napoleon Immortal Napoleon’s hair natural Nova Scotia O’Meara Orgeat Paris pathologist patient Pauline Borghese physician pigmentation potassium preservative probably pylorus recently scirrhous single hair Sir Hudson Lowe specimen St Helena stomach cancer suffered surface Surgeon symptoms Tartar Emetic tissue tonic toxic toxicologist tumour ulcer University upper viscus vomiting weight