As the focus in materials science shifts towards designing materials at the sub-micron scale - the nanotechnology revolution - it becomes increasingly important to characterize the mechanical properties of thin films and small volumes of material. The development of of nanoscale probes and ultrasensitive transducers for force and depth has made such measurements possible, and there are several commercially available instruments for making them. Such nanoindentation measurement devices are used in a wide variety of research and manufacturing areas, ranging from the fabrication and testing of silicon wafers in the electronics industry to the testing of hard coatings for cutting tools. This book presents the underlying theory behind the extraction of elastic modulus and hardness from the load-displacement data, discusses the significance of surface forces and adhesion, delineates the various corrections involved, and describes the methods of operation of the available instruments.
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Analysis of Nanoindentation Test Data
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analysis angle applied area function area of contact Berkovich indenter calculated calibration circle of contact compliance cone conical indenter constant contact area contact radius Courtesy CSIRO cracks creep denter depth h depth of penetration determined dP/dh elastic modulus elastic recovery elastic unloading elastic-plastic experimental fracture toughness friction full load fused silica geometry given hardness value Hertz indentation depth indentation hardness indentation test indenter load Knoop indenter load and depth load-displacement curve maximum load mean contact pressure mechanical properties modulus and hardness nanoindentation instrument nanoindentation test nanometre noise floor parameter penetration depth Pharr plastic deformation plastic depth plastic zone Proc pyramidal indenters range ratio residual impression residual stresses scratch test shear stress shown in Fig slope solid specimen free surface specimen material specimen surface spherical indenter strain-hardening substrate technique temperature test force thermal drift thin films unloading curve Vickers indenter viscoelastic W.C. Oliver