Mosquitoes and Malaria: A Summary of Knowledge on the Subject Up to Date; with an Account of the Natural History of Some Mosquitoes

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Sampson Law, Marston & Company, Limited, 1900 - Malaria - 80 pages
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Page 22 - ... could be found on the fifth day. In the other three very few are now found, though at first they were numerous. The recovery of these birds and the death of the mosquitoes fed on them diminishes the chances of much future work on this line during the time remaining to me here. 11. Mention has been made of the differentiation of the coccidia (previous to the formation of the germinal threads), according to the appearance of their contents, into clear and granular ; the evolution of the latter...
Page 23 - That they may be ingested by mosquito larvae, and in them undergo such development as will result in the formation of germinal threads in the adult mosquito, which, in turn, may be injected into the appropriate bird. " (c) That they may, if swallowed or inhaled by an appropriate warm-blooded host, so develop as to reach the circulation and pass into the sporulating phase. " Such experiments as have been made on this subject are inconclusive, and it is obvious that, until the nature of these black...
Page 22 - ... coccidia, and in most infected mosquitoes, when the germinal threads are mature, certain black tubular bodies are to be found in cysts with otherwise clear contents. These black tubular bodies were frequently met with in the series of mosquitoes infected in November and December. Most of these mosquitoes contained some coccidia with black tubular spore-like bodies; though in a few insects all the cysts contained germinal threads only. In some cysts the black spores were numerous, and occupied...
Page 23 - M determined we cannot exclude, even for Proteosoma of sparrows, the possibility of any one of the many possible alternative channels of infection. Intervention of the mosquito intermediate host may be only an occasional requirement. Still less are we justified in concluding that malaria in man can only be acquired through and directly from the mosquito ; or in devoting our attention exclusively to that channel. 12. I have made myself familiar with the Proteosoma in sparrows, and the Halteridium...
Page 23 - When the cysts are ruptured the black spores are to be found all over the body of the mosquito, but not included in cells. They do not seem to accumulate in any particular organ. The most plausible view of the nature of these black spores seems to be that held by Major Ross, viz., that they are
Page 23 - From the black spores may arise bodies capable of non-parasitic life (and possibly of reproduction), which at certain stages of their existence, and in certain conditions, on introduction into a warm-blooded host by inhalation, through drinking water, or even by injection by a mosquito or other bloodsucker in transferring them from the medium in which they live, may resume parasitic habits.
Page 23 - ... cysts contained germinal threads only. In some cysts the black spores were numerous, and occupied the entire cyst ; in other cysts there were only a few. In most instances germinal threads were not found in the black spore-bearing cysts ; but there were a few such cysts in which it was doubtful whether germinal threads were present or not, or whether the appearance arose from over-lying threads which had escaped from a neighbouring capsule. These black spores are very resistant ; I have seen...
Page 29 - Rome, summarises the subject concisely as follows*: — " Man and mosquitos are the sources of malarial infection, which circulates, so to speak, from man to mosquito and from mosquito to man, and so on. In this circulation of the contagion, the presence of malarial man is indispensable, inasmuch as, down to the present time, the hereditary transmission of malaria from mosquito to mosquito has not been demonstrated experimentally or morphologically, nor have resisting parasitic forms been found in...
Page 10 - Out of 245 grey mosquitoes fed on birds with Proteosoma, 178, or 72 per cent, contained pigmented cells, while out of 249 of them fed on blood containing other parasites or no parasites, not a single one contained them. Another experiment was the following. Three sparrows were selected, one with no parasites, one with a few Proteosoma, and one with many Proteosoma.
Page 19 - ... traverses the whole length of it, and opens at its extremity in such a manner that the secretion of the gland must be poured into the very bottom of the wound made by the piercing apparatus of the proboscis.

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