## A Source Book in Medieval ScienceModern scholarship has exposed the intrinsic importance of medieval science and confirmed its role in preserving and transmitting Greek and Arabic achievements. This The readings, a number of them complete treatises, have been chosen to represent "science" in a medieval rather than a modern sense. Thus, insofar as they are relevant to medieval science, selections have been drawn from works on alchemy, astrology, logic, and theology. Most of the book, however, reflects medieval understanding of, and achievements in, the mathematical, physical, and biological sciences. Critical commentary and annotation accompany the selections. An appendix contains brief biographiesof all authors. This book will be an indispensible resource for students and scholars in the history of science. |

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### Contents

On the Quadrivium or Four Mathematical 15 An Assessment of Buridans Objections 51 | 3 |

On Arithmetic | 17 |

Number Theory and Indeterminate 37 Questions on the Two Books of Aristotles | 24 |

A Proposition on Mathematical 38 Questions on The Four Books of Aristotles | 39 |

Classification of the Sciences | 53 |

On the Order of the Planets 27 Hugh of St Victor | 59 |

On Comets 539 OCEANOGRAPHY | 70 |

On Ocean and Tides 30 Introduction | 77 |

OPTICS | 375 |

Robert Grosseteste and the Revival of Optics | 384 |

Late ThirteenthCentury Synthesis | 392 |

Late Medieval Optics | 435 |

THE ELEMENTS OF ASTRONOMY | 442 |

Extracts from the Alfonsine Tables and Rules | 465 |

ASTROLOGY | 488 |

COSMOLOGY | 494 |

A List of Translations Made from Arabic into 19 On the Importance of Study | 90 |

Infinite Series | 131 |

Manipulation of MOTION | 150 |

Rational and Irrational Exponents | 158 |

Two Medieval Versions of Archimedes | 167 |

The Trisection of an Angle | 176 |

Constructions from an Applied Resistant Medium? The Responses of Aver | 253 |

Typical Scientific Questions Based on St Thomas Aquinas | 265 |

Motion | 272 |

Questions on the Four Books of Aristotles 49 On the Cause of Acceleration of Freefalling | 280 |

Contrary Motions | 284 |

Mathematical Representations | 292 |

ATOMISM | 312 |

ON VACUUM | 324 |

Motion in a Hypothetical Void | 334 |

MEASUREMENT OF FORCES | 360 |

MAGNETISM | 367 |

On Saving the Phenomena and the Reality | 516 |

On the Commensurability or Incommensura | 529 |

On the Existence of an Imaginary Infinite Biology | 554 |

Not Spirit Century Bestiary | 644 |

On a Godfilled Extramundane Infinite Void 84 An Attempt at a Scientific Description | 654 |

Alchemy and Chemistry | 689 |

Twentysix Arguments against Alchemy and Albertus Magnus | 699 |

How Elements Persist in a Compound 603 Isidore of Seville | 705 |

On the Formation of Stones and SCIENTIFIC METHOD | 720 |

GEOGRAPHY | 727 |

Simple Medicines | 778 |

Interpretation of the Urine 748 pirical Pharmacy | 788 |

Danger Symptoms 755 Salernitan Surgery | 795 |

Gynecology 761 1 Theodoric Bishop of Cervia | 803 |

Smallpox 770 BRIEF AUTHOR BIOGRAPHIES | 809 |

838 | |