## Elementary principles of carpentry: a treatise on the pressure and equilibrium of timber framing; the resistance of timber; and the construction of floors, roofs, centres, bridges, &c. with practical rules and examples. To which is added an essay on the nature and properties of timber, including the methods of seasoning, and the causes and prevention of decay, with descriptions of the kinds of wood used in building. Also numerous tables of the scantlings of timber for different purposes, the specific gravities of materials, &c |

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abutment angle arch arch-stones beam bearing beech binding joists bolts braces breadth in inches bridge carpentry centre of gravity cohesive force compressed consequently considerable constant number construction cube cubic foot curvature curve of equilibrium curved ribs decay deflexion degree depth in inches diameter direction Ditto dome dovetail joint Dry Rot durable English oak equal equation experiments feet span floor framing girder Idem iron joint kind of wood length in feet load method middle modulus of elasticity moisture Multiply nearly Norway spruce piece of timber piers planking Plate pounds pressure principal rafter principles produce proportion purlins quantity queen posts radius radius of curvature Rees's Cyclopaedia resist Riga roadway roof rules sap-wood scantlings scarf seasoned Sect septa side species Specific gravity specimens square inch stiffness straps strength supported thickness tree truss vertical Vitruvius weight

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Page iii - THE ELEMENTARY PRINCIPLES OF CARPENTRY : a Treatise on the Pressure and Equilibrium of Timber Framing, the Resistance of Timber, and the Construction of Floors, Arches, Bridges, Roofs, Uniting Iron and Stone with Timber, &c. To which is added an Essay on the Nature and Properties of Timber, &c., with Descriptions of the Kinds of Wood used in Building ; also numerous Tables of the Scantlings of Timber for different purposes, the Specific Gravities of Materials...

Page 229 - ... a yellowish or brownish white, with pores inclined to red. Elm is in general porous, and cross-grained, sometimes very coarse grained, and has no larger septa. It has a peculiar odour. It twists and warps much in drying, and shrinks very much both in length and breadth. It is difficult to work, but is not liable to split, and bears the driving of bolts and nails better than any other timber. The timber of the English elm is generally esteemed the best, that of the wych elm is equally as good,...

Page 182 - Hesiod to the same effect ; and adds, " as the houses of the ancients were so smoky, it may be easily comprehended how, by means of smoke, they could dry and harden pieces of timber.

Page 168 - It was further desirable to ascertain the degree of dependence that might be placed on nailing two pieces together, and Mr. Bevan kindly undertook to make some trials. Two pieces of Christiana deal, seveneighths of an inch thick, were nailed together with two sixpenny nails ; and a longitudinal force in the plane of the joint, and consequently at right angles to the direction of the nails, was applied to cause the joint to slide; it required a force of 712 Ibs., and the time was 15 minutes; the nails...

Page 52 - ... the square root of the quotient will be the diameter of the pump plunger in inches (allowing 5 per cent.

Page 76 - Two models were made 18 inches ^square ; one consisted of .single joists, the other framed with girders, binding, bridging, and ceiling joists; the single joists of the one contained the same quantity of timber with the girders alone of the other. They were placed in a wooden trunk 18 inches square within, with a strong projection on the inside for the floors to rest on, and small shot was gradually poured over. The single joisted floor broke down with 487 pounds ; the framed floor, with 32 7 pounds.

Page 57 - Multiply the number in the table by the breadth and square of the depth in inches, and divide the product by the length in feet : the quotient will be the weight, in pounds.

Page 246 - It is extremely durable in all situations, failing only where any other kind would fail ; for this valuable property it has been celebrated from the time of Vitruvius, who regrets that it could not be easily transported to Rome, where such a wood would have been so valuable. It appears, however, that this was sometimes done; for we are told that Tiberius caused the Numachiarian Bridge, constructed by Augustus, and afterwards burnt, to be rebuilt of larch planks procured from Rhaetia.

Page 17 - ... parts of the body ; then a plummet hung from the same tack will fall on the centre of gravity. Another method : Lay the body on the edge of a triangular prism, or such like, moving it to and fro till the parts on both sides are in equilibrio, and mark a line upon it close by the edge of the prism : balance it again in another position, and mark the fresh line by the edge of the prism ; the vertical line passing through the intersection of these lines, will likewise pass through the centre of...