The Continuity of Madhyamaka and Yogācāra in Indian Mahāyāna Buddhism
In the past European scholars have tended to treat both Madhyamaka and Yog?c?ra as separate and fundamentally opposed trends in Mah?y?na Buddhist thought. Drawing heavily on early textual evidence this work questions the validity of such a "Mah?y?na schools" hypothesis. By down-playing the late commentorial traditions, the author attempts a general reappraisal of the epistemological and ontological writings of Nagarjuna, Asanga and Vasubandhu. He concludes that the overlap in all areas of doctrine is significant, but particularly with respect to the teachings on the levels of truth, the enlightened and unenlightened states, the status of language and the nature of reality. It is hoped that such investigations may provide the basis for a new theory on the proliferation of Indian Mah?y?na Buddhism as an organic process of assimilation to new audiences, and specific contemporary problems, rather than in the more schismatic manner favoured by past researchers.
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accept ālaya already appears arise Asanga aspect associated attempt authors basis bhavanga Bhāvaviveka Buddha Buddhist Candrakīrti chapter citta clear clearly concept concerning conclusion conditioned connection consciousness consequence considered construction conventional corresponds defilements dependent dependent origination dharmas distinction doctrine early emptiness enlightened entities examination existence fact false formulations four gives held hold idea ignorance ignorance avidyā imagined interpretation j˝āna knowledge language latter leads Lindtner logical Madhyamaka Mahāyāna maintains meaning mental merely mind Nāgārjuna nature nirvāņa non-existence noted notion object ontological paramārtha particular path person point of view position possible praj˝ā Praj˝āpāramitā pratītyasamutpāda present problem question reality reference regard represents result Ruegg seems seen sense stage statement suffering sūnyatā svabhāva takes teaching theory things thought tradition true true nature truth turn ultimate understanding unenlightened Vasubandhu vij˝āna writings Yogācāra