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Schematic of microlithographic process
Offner ring field design used in early Micralign systems
22 other sections not shown
absorber alignment approach approximately astigmatism axial calcium fluoride catadioptric chromatic aberration chromium coefficients coherence factor Contrast transfer function deep ultraviolet defocus depth of focus described diffraction limited diffraction limited imaging discussed effects electron beam electron beam lithography elements etch excimer laser exposure Fourier fused silica fused silica masks grating pitches illumination system image monitor experiment image plane intensity interferometer larger line/space lines and spaces linewidth Markle-Dyson prototype Markle-Dyson system mask and wafer mask fabrication measured minimum feature numerical aperture object and probe object grating obtained optical design optical lithography optical system output overlay parameters partial coherence patterned phase photodiode probe gratings projection optics proximity printing pupil reduced reflective mask reflector refractive index resolution scalar scanned grating modulation Section short wavelength shown in Fig signal simulation spatial frequency spherical aberration stepper substrate surface figure thickness transmission transmitted transverse ungapped unity magnification wavelength