David D. Awschalom, Robert A. Buhrman, James M. Daughton, Stephan von Molnár, Michael L. Roukes
Springer Science & Business Media, 2004 - Science - 198 pages
The history of scientific research and technological development is replete with examples of breakthroughs that have advanced the frontiers of knowledge, but seldom does it record events that constitute paradigm shifts in broad areas of intellectual pursuit. One notable exception, however, is that of spin electronics (also called spintronics, magnetoelectronics or magnetronics), wherein information is carried by electron spin in addition to, or in place of, electron charge. It is now well established in scientific and engineering communities that Moore's Law, having been an excellent predictor of integrated circuit density and computer performance since the 1970s, now faces great challenges as the scale of electronic devices has been reduced to the level where quantum effects become significant factors in device operation. Electron spin is one such effect that offers the opportunity to continue the gains predicted by Moore's Law, by taking advantage of the confluence of magnetics and semiconductor electronics in the newly emerging discipline of spin electronics. From a fundamental viewpoine, spin-polarization transport in a material occurs when there is an imbalance of spin populations at the Fermi energy. In ferromagnetic metals this imbalance results from a shift in the energy states available to spin-up and spin-down electrons. In practical applications, a ferromagnetic metal may be used as a source of spin-polarized electronics to be injected into a semiconductor, a superconductor or a normal metal, or to tunnel through an insulating barrier.
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2001 WTEC Attendees Akinaga Appl applications atomic barrier Buhrman Center characterization Coey collaboration D.D. Awschalom Daughton density detection devices doped effect effort electrical electron spin epitaxial Europe fabrication ferromagnetic semiconductors funding GaAs graduate students heterostructures III-V integrated interaction interface Japan Kikkawa laboratories layer Lett lithography low temperature Magn magnetic field magnetic materials magnetic nanostructures magnetic semiconductors magnetic tunnel junction magneto-optical magnetoelectronics magnetoresistance magnetotransport metal microscopy Molnar MRAM nanofabrication nanomagnet nanoscale nanostructures Ohno optical optoelectronics panel Ph.D Phys Physics polarization postdocs Professor quantum computation quantum dots random access memory read heads recently room temperature Roukes Sato scanning tunneling scanning tunneling microscopy sensors spectroscopy spin coherence spin electronics spin injection spin lifetimes spin transfer spin transport spin valve spin-based spin-polarized spintronics structures switching Tackeuchi techniques Technology thin film transistors transition tunnel junctions tunneling magnetoresistance University