Introduction to Chemical Dependency Counseling

Front Cover
Jason Aronson, 2001 - Medical - 391 pages
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This book is a basic resource of knowledge about alcoholism and drug addiction. The authors cover the scientific and clinical aspects of chemical dependency in a balanced way with case vignettes to illustrate clinical issues. The book is suitable for a number of student needs. Students preparing for the Certified Alcoholism and Substance Abuse Counselor (CASAC) examination will find topics discussed that are drawn from the certification examination requirements. The text can stand as a main source for college-level courses in addictions or chemical dependancy in the mental health health programs, and can be used as a college or stand-alone introduction to chemical dependancy and counseling. Psychologists, social workers, clergy, and other professional counselors who wish to supplement their knowledge about chemical dependancy will find this text serves as a valuable reference. After an introduction to the general problems of substance abuse counseling, the authors delineate the different types of drugs and their effects, organize the relevant information used in the assessment and diagnosis of addictions, integrate knowledge of human development with causes of dependancy and addiction, and explore the impact of addiction on health and the family. They then focus on the principles of chemical abuse counseling, including treatment planning, the different schools of counseling, how to understand and manage relapse, and special populations. They conclude with ethical considerations involved in treating chemical abusers. The authors believe that chemical dependency counseling is the only profession that treats substance abuse as a primary disorder and disease with its own causes, course, progression and complication. Chemical dependency counseling must deal with and absorb a complex and intriguing web of fact and theory drawn from sciences, medicine, and other fields. But the practical side of chemical dependency counseling remains an art and a science. This book offers a whole set of specific techniques
 

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Contents

INTRODUCTION TO CHEMICAL DEPENDENCY COUNSELING
1
11 THE SCOPE OF CHEMICAL DEPENDENCY COUNSELING
2
Chemical Dependency Counseling and Other Health Professions
5
12 HISTORY OF CHEMICAL DEPENDENCY COUNSELING
7
Early Figures and Movements
8
Alcoholics Anonymous and the Twelve Step Movement
9
The Peer Counseling Movement and Professionalization
12
Employee Assistance Programs
13
Intergenerational Systems Family Therapy
175
Behavioral Family Therapy
177
The Baker Family
179
Asking Questions and Sorting Issues
182
Strategic Approach with the Bakers
184
Structural Approach with the Bakers
185
Experiential Approach with the Bakers
187
Intergenerational Systems Approach with the Bakers
188

Therapeutic Communities
14
13 PROFESSIONAL COUNSELING AND CHEMICAL DEPENDENCY
15
Employment Opportunities
16
Psychoactive Drugs
19
21 PSYCHOACTIVE DRUGS AND THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
20
Electrical and Chemical Events in Neurons
21
Types of Neurotransmitters
22
22 DEPRESSANTS
23
Barbiturates and Other SedativeHypnotics
25
Mechanisms of Action
26
Methadone
27
Mechanisms of Action
28
Amphetamines
29
Mechanisms of Action
30
Lysergic Acid Diethylamide
31
Mechanisms of Action
32
Mechanisms of Action
33
Types of Inhalants
34
The Assessment of Chemical Dependency
37
31 The Clinical Interview
38
Interview Strategies
39
32 Substance Use Assessment Instruments
42
Structured Interview Schedules
44
Assessment of Motivation for Change
46
33 Psychological Testing
47
SelfReport Inventories
48
Projective Tests
49
Intelligence and Neuropsychological Tests
50
34 Laboratory Analysis
51
Drugs Tested and Characteristics of DrugTesting Methods
52
Types of Biological Specimens Analyzed
53
Diagnosis and Types of Chemical Dependency
57
41 The Scope of Psychoactive Drug Use
58
The Monitoring the Future Study
59
42 The Diagnosis of SubstanceRelated Disorders
61
Substance Abuse
63
Substance Dependence
64
Substance Withdrawal
66
43 The Course of Substance Abuse and Dependence
68
The Course of Alcohol and Drug Dependence
69
44 Types of Alcoholism
70
The Type 1Type 2 Model
71
A Biopsychosocial Model
72
The Type AType B Model
73
Development and Chemical Dependency
77
51 Principles of Human Development
78
Developmental Models and Chemical Dependency
81
52 Developmental Research
83
Vulnerability Risk and Protection
85
53 Drug Use Across the Life Span
87
Adolescence
89
Adulthood
92
Causes of Chemical Dependency
97
61 Biology of Chemical Dependency
98
Hereditary Influences
99
Nenrophysiology of Addiction
101
62 Personality and Chemical Dependency
103
Personality Traits
104
63 Learning and Chemical Dependency
106
Classical Conditioning
107
64 Cognitive Influences on Chemical Dependency
109
Expectancy Theory
111
65 Motivation and Emotion
112
66 Sociocultural Influences
114
Social Factors
116
Chemical Dependency and Physical Health
121
71 General Health Risks
122
Overdose and Withdrawal
123
72 Cardiovascular Disorders
124
Cocaine and the Cardiovascular System
126
Cocaine and Neurological Damage
127
74 Liver Gastrointestinal and Pancreatic Disorders
128
Gastrointestinal Disorders
129
Pancreatic Disorders
130
AIDS and HIV Infection
131
Sexual Behavior and AIDS
132
Drug Use HIVAIDS and Tuberculosis
134
76 Prenatal Exposure to Drugs
135
Alcohol
136
Chemical Dependency and Mental Health
139
81 What Is Mental Health?
140
Drug Use and Mental Disorders
142
82 Cognitive and Perceptual Disorders
144
Dementia and Amnesia
145
Flashbacks
146
Substance Use and Anxiety Disorders
148
84 Mood Disorders
149
Substance Use and Mood Disorders
150
85 Psychotic Disorders
152
Substance Use and Psychotic Disorders
153
86 Personality Disorders
154
Substance Use and Personality Disorders
156
87 Impulse Control and Eating Disorders
158
Eating Disorders
159
Chemical Dependency and the Family
163
91 Substance Abuse as a Family Disease
164
Homeostasis
165
General Systems Theory
166
The Addicted Family
167
92 Major Family Therapy Approaches
169
Structural Family Therapy
172
Experiential Family Therapy
173
Behavioral Approach with the Bakers
192
Psychodynamic Approach with the Bakers
193
Substance Abuse Approach with the Bakers
196
Chemical Dependency and Society
201
101 Social History of Drugs
202
The Early Modern World
203
Eighteenth and NineteenthCentury America
204
The Twentieth Century
205
Sociological Perspective on Drug Problems
207
103 Economic Impact of Chemical Dependency on Society
208
The CostofIllness Method
209
The External Social Cost Model
210
Educational Attainment
211
Chemical Dependency and Crime
212
105 Societal Response to Chemical Dependency
213
Educational Responses
214
Health Profession Responses
215
Principles of Chemical Dependency Counseling
219
The Course of Chemical Dependency
220
Phases in Chemical Dependency Treatment
221
112 The Professional Counselors Role and Tasks
223
Basic Tasks of Chemical Dependency Counselors
225
113 The Counselors Responsibilities
228
Therapeutic Responsibilities
229
Ethical Responsibilities
231
Professional Development
232
Planning Selecting and Implementing Treatment
235
121 Treatment Goals and General Principles of Treatment
236
General Principles of Effective Treatment
237
Treatment Compliance and Involvement
239
122 Treatment Settings
240
Types of Treatment Settings
241
Treatment Setting and Effectiveness
243
123 Detoxification
244
Outpatient and Inpatient Detoxification
245
124 Pharmacotherapy
246
Drugs That Discourage the Use of Abused Substances
247
Agonist Substitution Drugs
248
Medications to Treat Comorbid Mental Disorders
249
125 SelfHelp Groups and Psychosocial Treatments
250
Individual Group and Family Therapies
251
An Evaluation of Individual Group and Family Therapies
252
126 ManualGuided and Other Treatment Modalities
253
CognitiveBehavioral Coping Skills Therapy
254
Twelve step Faciliation Therapy
255
Counseling Schools and Techniques
261
131 Schools of Counseling
262
Behavioral Counseling
263
ClientCentered Counseling
264
Existential Counseling
265
Gestalt Counseling
267
Psychodynamic Counseling
268
Substance abuseSpecific Counseling
271
Counseling Schools and Counseling Techniques
273
Establishing Rapport
274
Confrontation
275
133 EmotionFocused Techniques
276
Relaxation Training
277
134 CognitionFocused Techniques
278
Education
279
Interpretation
281
Exploration and Clarification
283
135 BehaviorFocused Techniques
284
Modeling
285
Assertiveness Training
287
Understanding Preventing And Managing Relapse
291
141 Understanding Relapse
292
Conceptualizing Relapse
293
142 What Causes Relapse?
294
Biological Influences on Relapse
295
Personality and Relapse Vulnerability
296
Cognitive and Affective Factors in Relapse
297
Social Factors in Relapse
299
Identifying and Dealing with HighRisk Situations
300
Coping with Cravings
302
Utilizing Social Supports
304
Developing a Healthy Lifestyle
306
Counseling Special Populations
309
151 Chemically Dependent Women
311
Origins of Alcoholism in Women
312
Issues in Counseling Alcoholic Women
313
Other Addictions in Women
314
152 Special Age Groups
316
Substance Abuse in the Elderly
318
153 Substance Abuse in Minority Groups
320
Substance Abuse in HispanicLatino Americans
321
Substance Abuse in Gays Lesbians and Bisexuals
322
154 Other Special Populations
323
Physically and Cognitively Disabled Substance Abusers
325
Ethical And Legal Issues in Counseling
331
161 Chemical Dependency Counselor Competencies
333
Professional Practice
334
162 Confidentiality
335
The Scope of Confidentiality
336
Common Exceptions to Nondisclosure
337
The Duty to Protect
339
163 The Rights of Clients
340
Safeguarding Your Clients Welfare
341
References
345
Glossary
371
Index
381
Copyright

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About the author (2001)

Jerome D. Levin, Ph.D., is director of the Alcoholism and Substance Abuse Counselor Training Program at the New School University in Manhattan, where he also serves both on the humanities department faculty, and as co-director of the joint masters program in psychology and substance abuse treatment. Joseph Culkin, Ph.D., is professor of psychology in the Department of Social Sciences of Queensborough Community College/The City University of New York. Richard S. Perrotto, Ph.D., is professor of psychology in the Department of Social Sciences at Queensborough Community College/The City University of New York, where he has taught since 1978.