Audiencemaking: how the media create the audience

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This provocative book shows how media institutions define their audiences and how these definitions shape the work of organizations within them. Leading scholars show that the audience definitions-in-use in each sector shape modern media. Receivers, they argue, are constituted as institutionally-effective audiences that have social meaning and//or economic value within the system. These include measured audiences, generated by research services, sold by media channels and bought by advertisers; specialized or segmented audiences whose particular interests are anticipated or created and then met by content producers; and hypothesized audiences whose interest, convenience and necessity are presumably protected by regulators.

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An Introduction to Audiencemaking
Victim Consumer or Commodity?
Producing Childrens Television Programs

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About the author (1994)

JAMES S. ETTEMA is on the faculty of the Department of Communication Studies at Northwestern University. He is the editor, with D. Charles Whitney, of "Individuals in Mass Media Organizations: Creativity and Constraint and Audience Making: How the Media Created the Audience."

THEODORE L. GLASSER is a director of the Graduate Program in Journalism at Stanford University. He is the editor of the Idea of Public Journalism and, with Charles T. Salmon, "Public Opinion and the Communication of Consent.

Chuck Whitney has been a professor in the Department of Journalism at the University of Texas at Austin since 1993; he also holds an appointment as professor of radio-TV-film. He has taught at the University of Illinois, the University of California at Santa Barbara, and Stanford University. In 1985-1986, he was research director at the Gannett Center for Media Studies (now the Freedom Forum Media Studies Center) at Columbia University. His Ph.D. is in mass communication from the University of Minnesota, and his research specialties are in the sociology of mass media communicators and in political communication and public opinion. He served as editor for the journal Critical Studies in Mass Communication and was site manager of the Independent Television Violence Assessment Study, a 3-year, $3.3 million investigation of violence on cable and network television.

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