Sovereignty as Responsibility: Conflict Management in Africa
Francis Mading Deng
Brookings Institution Press - Political Science - 265 pages
The authors assert that sovereignty can no longer be seen as a protection against interference, but as a charge of responsibility where the state is accountable to both domestic and external constituencies. In internal conflicts in Africa, sovereign states have often failed to take responsibility for their own citizens' welfare and for the humanitarian consequences of conflict, leaving the victims with no assistance. This book shows how that responsibility can be exercised by states over their own population, and by other states in assistance to their fellow sovereigns. Sovereignty as Responsibility presents a framework that should guide both national governments and the international community in discharging their respective responsibilities. Broad principles are developed by examining identity as a potential source of conflict, governance as a matter of managing conflict, and economics as a policy field for deterring conflict. Considering conflict management, political stability, economic development, and social welfare as functions of governance, the authors develop strategies, guidelines, and roles for its responsible exercise. Some African governments, such as South Africa in the 1990s and Ghana since 1980, have demonstrated impressive gains against these standards, while others, such as Rwanda, Somalia, Liberia, Nigeria, and Sudan, have failed. Opportunities for making sovereignty more responsible and improving the management of conflicts are examined at the regional and international levels. The lessons from the mixed successes of regional conflict management actions, such as the West African intervention in Liberia, the East African mediation in Sudan, and international effortsto urge talks to end the conflict in Angola, indicate friends and neighbors outside the state in conflict have important roles to play in increasing sovereign responsibility. Approaching conflict management from the perspective of the responsibilities of sovereignty provides a framework for evaluating government accountability. It proposes standards that guide performance and sharpen tools of conflict prevention rather than simply making post-hoc judgments on success or failure. The authors demonstrate that sovereignty as responsibility is both a national obligation and a global imperative.
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actors African countries agreement allocation Angola assistance borders Burundi cease-fire challenge civil collapse colonial conflict management Conflict Resolution conflicts in Africa context cooperation Cote d'lvoire cultural demand-bearing groups demands democratic Deng distribution Djibouti domestic donor ECOMOG economic ECOWAS effective efforts elections Eritrea escalating Ethiopia ethnic external flict forces framework global human rights humanitarian IGADD independence initiatives institutions insurgents integration internal conflicts international community intervention involvement issues leaders legitimacy level of conflict Liberia management of conflict managing conflict mediators mediatory ment military Mozambique Namibia national sovereignty negotiations neighboring Nigeria norms parties peace peacekeeping peacemaking policies political population problems protection racial refugees regime regional organizations relations representative responsible sovereignty role Rwanda situation social society Somalia South Africa Southern Africa sovereignty stability strategies structure Sudan Sudanese tion tional Tutsi Uganda United Nations unity violence West African Western Sahara William Zartman Zaire
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