Language Shifts Among the Scheduled Tribes in India: A Geographical Study
The present work attempts to identify spatial patterns fo the extent and nature of language shifts among the tribal population in India. It provides social, economic and political dimensions of changing linguistic identity. Based on both secondary and primary data, some of the socio-economic variables have been statistically tested through Correlation and Regression to determine the relationship with language shifts. The impact of urbanisation and regional development on the linguistic behaviour of the tribal population has been analysed.The study rejects the claim that language shift indicates the process of integration--rather it shows the process of assimilation of the tribal people into the majority culture group. In fact, language shifts among these societies have been perceived more often as social compulsions.The study emphasises the need of promoting and preserving the tribal languages as these are cultural heritage of India. The study may provide a basis to understand the dynamics of language shift--as it might have implications of language planning in multilingual societies like India.
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TRIBAL LANGUAGES OF INDIA
LIST OF FIGURES
TYPOLOGY OF LANGUAGE SHIFT
Correlation Matrix Based on Household Level Data
Relationship Between Percentage of Tribes Development and Language Shift
Districts with High Level of Urbanisation
PLANNING FOR THE PRESERVATION
Levels of Development
Degree of Language Shift
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80 per cent Amravati assimilation Austric languages Austric speaking Austric tribes Baudhkhondmals Bhili Bhils Bhumij Bihar bilingual Bodo Bolangir Census of India cent per cent Chotanagpur classiﬁed coefﬁcient conﬁned correlation cultural decadal variation declared regional degree of language Dhanbad Dhenkanal dialect districts Dravidian East Nimar Garo Gondi group of languages Hazaribagh high degree Hindi Indo-Aryan Kalahandi Keonjhar Kharia Khasi Koraput Korkus lakh lakh persons language maintenance language regionalism language shift languages of India levels of development levels of urbanisation linguistic groups linguistic identity Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Mayurbhanj medium mother tongue Mundari Mundas non-tribal languages number of speakers Orissa Palamau percentage of tribes persons in 1971 Punasa regional languages registered Richhi Sambalpur Santal Parganas Santals Savara share shift and maintenance signiﬁcant Singhbhum speakers in India spoken Sundargarh total Austric traditional language tribal groups tribal languages tribal population tribes declared tribes speaking Tripura urban variables varies villages W.Bengal West Bengal West Nimar
Page 4 - Social and cultural tables. Delhi. CENSUS OF INDIA 1981, Series I, India, households and household population by language mainly spoken in the household, Paper-I of 1987. Delhi.