The Hydrogen Economy: Opportunities, Costs, Barriers, and R&D Needs

Front Cover

The announcement of a hydrogen fuel initiative in the Presidentā€™s 2003 State of the Union speech substantially increased interest in the potential for hydrogen to play a major role in the nationā€™s long-term energy future. Prior to that event, DOE asked the National Research Council to examine key technical issues about the hydrogen economy to assist in the development of its hydrogen R&D program. Included in the assessment were the current state of technology; future cost estimates; CO2 emissions; distribution, storage, and end use considerations; and the DOE RD&D program. The report provides an assessment of hydrogen as a fuel in the nationā€™s future energy economy and describes a number of important challenges that must be overcome if it is to make a major energy contribution. Topics covered include the hydrogen end-use technologies, transportation, hydrogen production technologies, and transition issues for hydrogen in vehicles.

 

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Contents

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
1
x
14
E20
20
HYDROGEN ENDUSE TECHNOLOGIES
25
E26
26
E32
32
TRANSPORTATION DISTRIBUTION AND STORAGE OF HYDROGEN
37
E38
38
8
91
45
96
9
106
MAJOR MESSAGES OF THIS REPORT
116
REFERENCES
123
A Biographies of Committee Members
129
DOE Hydrogen Program Budget
137
E41
141

SUPPLY CHAINS FOR HYDROGEN AND ESTIMATED COSTS
45
25
57
6
61
37
70
7
84
CS Size Hydrogen via Steam Reforming of Natural Gas Plus CO2 Capture with
148
E13 Gaseous Hydrogen Distributed via Pipeline with Current Technology
155
F U S Energy Systems
194
H Useful Conversions and Thermodynamic Properties
240
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