The Thermionic Vacuum Tube and Its Applications

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McGraw-Hill book Company, Incorporated, 1920 - Telegraph, Wireless - 391 pages
 

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Contents

Relation between Space Charge and Potential Distribution
15
CHAPTER II
16
Constitution of the Atom
17
Radiation from Atoms Caused by Bombardment of Electrons
19
Ionization Voltage and Convergence Frequency
21
CHAPTER III
23
Contact Electromotive Force
26
Measurement of Contact E M F
28
Elements of Thermionics
30
Influence of Surface Conditions on Electron Affinity
34
Photoelectric Effect
38
Section Page 22 Control of Space Current by Means of an Auxiliary or Third Elec trode
42
Secondary Electron Emission Delta Rays
47
CHAPTER IV
50
Currentvoltage Characteristic of Thermionic Valve SO 25 Currentvoltage Relation of Infinite Parallel Plates
54
Quantitative Relation for Concentric Cylinders
59
Influence of Initial Velocities
61
Effect of Voltage Drop in the Filament
64
Influence of Limitation of Current by Thermionic Emission
70
Effect of Curvature of the Characteristic
73
Energy Dissipation at the Anode
75
Efficiency of the Cathode
76
CHAPTER V
86
Mean Free Path of Electrons in Gases
88
Ionization at Low Pressures
90
Effects of Ionization by Collision
91
Influence of Ionization on the Infrasaturation Part of the Charac teristic
93
Effect of Gas on the Electron Emission Surface Effect
98
Influence of Occluded Gases
102
Ionization at High Pressures
106
Difference between Gasfree Discharge and Arc Discharge
107
CHAPTER VI
109
The Fleming Valve
111
Valve Detector with Auxiliary Anode Battery
112
Thermionic Valve as High Power Rectifier
115
Optimum Voltage for Rectification
117
Types of Thermionic Valves
120
Rectification Efficiency
123
Production of Constant Source of High Voltage with the Thermionic Valve
132
The Thermionic Valve as a Voltage Regulator
142
The Thermionic Amplifier
145
BECTtON PAGE 52 Action of the Auxiliary Electrode
146
Currentvoltage Characteristics of the Thermionic Amplifier
150
Amplification Constant
160
Mutual Conductance
165
Shape of Output Wave in Circuit of Low External Impedance
166
Characteristic of Circuit Containing Tube and Resistance in Series
169
Static and Dynamic Characteristics
170
Conditions for Distortionless Amplification
178
Amplification Equations of the Thermionic Amplifier
180
Voltage Amplification
181
Power Amplification
185
High Frequencies
212
Practical Measurement of Amplification
215
Amplification as a Function of Operating Parameters
224
Tube Constants as Functions of the Structural Parameters
226
Calculation of Amplification Constant
227
Calculation of Plate Resistance
234
Types of Thermionic Amplifiers
236
Amplification Circuits
249
CHAPTER VIII
266
Method of Procedure for the Solution of the Oscillation Equations
267
Conditions for Oscillation in a Twoelement Device
269
Conditions for oscillation for Threeelectrode Tube
271
Relation between Mutual Conductance of Tube and that of Plate Circuit
279
Phase Relations
280
Colpitts and Hartley Circuits
282
Tuned Gridcircuit Oscillator
284
Effect of Intraelectrode capacities Parasitic Circuits
285
Regeneration
287
Complex and Coupled CircuitsMeissner Circuit
290
SECTION PAGE 90 Circuits Comprising ac and dc Branches
292
Effect of Grid Current
295
Output Power
296
Efficiency
298
Method of a Coupling between Output and Input
306
Influence of the Operating Parameters on the Behavior of the Oscillator
307
312
312
CHAPTER IX
315
Modulation
318
Modulation Systems
322
Detection
325
Root Mean Square Values of Detecting and Modulated Currents
328
and Grid Voltage
329
Detection with Blocking Condenser in Grid Circuit
332
Method of Measuring the Detecting Current
335
Measurement of the Detection Coefficient
339
Detecting Efficiency
344
Comparison of Detectors i
346
Audibility Method of Measuring the Detecting Current
349
Heterodyne Reception with the Audion
353
Zero Beat or Homodyne Method of Receiving Modulated Waves
358
The Feed Back Receiving Circuit
360
Radio Transmitting and Receiving Systems
361
Multiplex Telegraphy and Telephony
364
CHAPTER X
367
A Voltmeter
369
The Audion Voltage and Current Regulator
371
Power Limiting Devices
373
The Ionization Manometer
375
Heterodyne Method of Generating Currents of Very Low Frequency with the Vacuum Tube
377
The Thermionic Valve as a Hightension Switch
378
Tubes Containing More than One Grid
380
Index
385

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Page 14 - An electromagnetic wave in space has both an electric and a magnetic field intensity which are at right angles to each other and to the direction of propagation of the wave. The two field intensities are related to each other by &
Page 250 - CR tube in detail, it will be noted that the principle is basically the same as that of the thermionic valve. The source of electrons is a filament, or indirectly heated cathode, which is surrounded by a metal tube, shield, grid or Wehnelt cylinder as it is variously termed. The grid is maintained at a negative potential with respect to the cathode and therefore has the effect of repelling the electrons and tending to concentrate them. A short distance from the cathode is the anode, comprising a...
Page 32 - ... m is the mass of the electron, and n is the number of electrons per cubic centimeter outside the surface.
Page 149 - When Ec is positive some of the electrons moving toward the grid are drawn to the grid, while the rest are drawn through the openings of the grid to the anode under the influence of E,. The relative number of electrons going...
Page 224 - In the early part of this chapter it was pointed out that the valence of an element varies according to the character of the elements with which it combines.
Page 50 - ... discussion of the extensive investigations that have been carried out on thermionics, but merely touch upon those phases of the subject which have a direct bearing on the theory of operation of the thermionic amplifier. Consider a structure consisting of a heated cathode and an anode, and contained in a vessel which is evacuated to such an extent that the 1 In this connection it may be stated that the most reliable gauge for the measurement of high vacua is the so-called "ionization manometer"...
Page 62 - Here the voltage is not high enough to draw all the electrons to the anode as fast as they are emitted from the cathode...
Page 375 - Section 36 that if the gas pressure in a tube is so low that the mean free path of the electrons in the gas is large compared with the distance between the electrodes...
Page 31 - Electrons, Conduction — The electrons in the conduction band of a solid, which are free to move under the influence of an electric field.
Page 90 - Let us consider the case in which the pressure of the gas in the tube is so low that the mean free path is large compared with the distance between cathode and anode.

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