## Polarization in Spectral LinesThe scientific research based on spectropolarimetric techniques is undergoing a phase of rapid growth. Instruments of unprecedented sensitivity are nowadays available, particularly for solar observations. To fully exploit the rich diagnostic content of such observations, it is necessary to understand the physical mechanisms involved in the generation and transfer of polarized radiation in astrophysical (or laboratory) plasmas. After an introductory part based on classical physics, this book tackles the subject by a rigorous quantum-mechanical approach. The transfer equations for polarized radiation and the statistical equilibrium equations for the atomic density matrix are derived directly from the principles of Quantum Electrodynamics. The two sets of equations are then used to present a number of applications, mainly concerning the diagnostics of solar magnetic fields. This book is primarily addressed to scientists working in the field of spectropolarimetry. It may also serve as a textbook for a course at the graduate or advanced undergraduate level. |

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### Contents

1 | |

29 | |

ATOMIC SPECTROSCOPY | 73 |

QUANTIZATION OF THE ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD | 131 |

INTERACTION OF MATERIAL SYSTEMS WITH POLARIZED | 146 |

INTERACTION OF MATERIAL SYSTEMS WITH POLARIZED | 237 |

STATISTICAL EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS AND RADIATIVE | 276 |

The MultiLevel Atom in the Spherical Statistical Tensor | 284 |

RADIATIVE TRANSFER FOR POLARIZED RADIATION | 349 |

LINE FORMATION IN A MAGNETIC FIELD 375 | 374 |

NONEQUILIBRIUM ATOMIC PHYSICS | 509 |

Resonance Polarization and the Hanle Effect in the Absence | 698 |

Diagnostics of Magnetic Fields in Solar Prominences | 710 |

APPENDIX | 791 |

LIST OF TABLES 867 | 866 |

885 | |

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### Common terms and phrases

9-j symbols absorption angle angular momentum approximation atomic polarization atomic system circular polarization coefficients collisional collisions components consider corresponding deﬁned defined in Eq density matrix depolarizing derived Doppler eigenvectors evaluated evolution operator expression ﬁeld ﬁrst formal frequency given by Eq Hamiltonian Hanle effect help of Eqs hyperfine-structure integral Landé factor Landi Degl’Innocenti linear polarization lower level magnetic field magnetic field vector matrix elements model atom multiplet multipole multipole moments non-LTE optical depth oscillator phase matrix physical proﬁle profiles propagation matrix properties quantities quantum numbers radiation field tensor reference direction reference system rotation scattering Sect solar solution spectral line statistical equilibrium equations statistical tensors stimulated emission Stokes parameters Stokes vector sublevels Substitution symbol term transition two-level atom unit vectors upper level velocity wavelength width zero