Hadhrami Traders, Scholars and Statesmen in the Indian Ocean, 1750s to 1960s

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Ulrike Freitag, William G. Clarence-Smith
BRILL, 1997 - History - 392 pages
This volume covers the long neglected history of Hadhramaut (southern Arabia) during the modern colonial era, together with the history of Hadhrami "colonies" in the Malay world, southern India, the Red Sea, and East Africa. After an introduction placing Hadhramis in the context of other diasporas, there are sections on local and international politics, social stratification and integration, religious and social reform, and economic dynamics. The conclusion brings the story to the present day and outlines a research agenda. Many aspects of Indian Ocean history are illuminated by this book, notably the role of non-Western merchants in the spread of capitalism, Islamisation and the controversies which raged within Islam, British and Ottoman strategic concerns, social antagonisms in southern Arabia, and the cosmopolitan character of coastal societies.
 

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Contents

The Indian Ocean in 1914
6
Problems in Theo
19
Politics local and international
35
Hadhramaut
39
Conflicts of Identity and Interest
51
SouthWestern Arabia
57
The Hadhrami Role in the Politics and Society of Colonial India
67
India
68
East Africa
160
the Role of
175
Arab Ethnicity and Politics
185
Religious and social reform
199
Religious Links between Hadhramaut and the MalayIndone
217
the alIrshad Movement
231
Sayyid Uthman
249
Economic dynamics
264

Hadhramis in the Politics and Administration of the Malay
82
The Malay Peninsula
90
Dutch Colonial Policy Pertaining to Hadhrami Immigrants
94
The Malay World and Java
98
Hadhramis in International Politics c 17501967
112
The Red Sea and The Arabian Peninsula
115
Social stratification and integration
131
Reflections on the System of Social Stratification in Hadhra
147
Changing Patterns of Hadhrami Migration and Social Integra
157
The Economic Role of the Hadhrami Diaspora in the Red
281
Hadhrami Entrepreneurs in the Malay World c 1750 to c 1940
297
Conclusion
314
Notes on the Contributors
331
Glossary
337
Archival Sources and Bibliography
343
Index
367
Copyright

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About the author (1997)

Ulrike Freitag, Ph.D. (1991) Freiburg University, Lecturer in Modern Middle Eastern and Gender History (SOAS, London), has published on Arab historiography, and now works on reform movements in Hadhramaut 1880-1967. William G. Clarence-Smith, Ph.D. (1975) London University, Reader in Asian and African Economic History (SOAS, London) publishes on commodities and traders, and has edited "The Economics of the Indian Ocean Slave Trade in the 19th Century" ("Frank Cass," 1989).

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