Polycarp and the New Testament: The Occasion, Rhetoric, Theme, and Unity of the Epistle to the Philippians and Its Allusions to New Testament Literature
Polycarp's Epistle to the Philippians has often been used to bolster theories about the collection and use of the New Testament documents in Early Christianity. Unfortunately, past studies have often lacked a thorough investigation of the Epistle for its own sake, prior to its use as evidence in other debates. Therefore, Paul Hartog examines in the preliminary chapters the Epistle's historical background, the community situations, and the heretical opponents. Then he applies epistolary and rhetorical criticisms to the letter and its paraenetic themes. After these important foundational investigations, the problematic issue of the unity of the letter is addressed. Although Harrison's theory of a conflated epistle still dominates the field, this work argues for the integrity of the letter. Paul Hartog continues by ascertaining, through objective criteria, which New Testament documents Polycarp certainly or probably used. Specific issues are then addressed, including Polycarp's creative weaving of traditional materials, his apparent disregard for the Hebrew Scriptures, his use of the term 'Scriptures, ' his adaptation of Pauline theology, his hypothesized authorship of the Pastoral Epistles, and his evidence for the early collection of the New Testament documents
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Adversus haereses allusions Ancient Smyrna Apostolic Fathers Apostolischen Vater Asia Minor avarice Barnard Bauer bishop Bovon-Thurneysen Bucolis Cadoux Camelot Campenhausen chapter 13 Christ Clement Corinthians Dehandschutter Didache Donaldson Early Christian Early Church English translation Ephesians Eusebius evidence example exhortation Farkasfalvy Formation Gospel Greek Harnack Harrison heresy heretics Historia ecclesiastica History Ibid Ignace d'Antioche Ignatian Ignatius of Antioch Ignatius von Antiochien interpolations Irenaeus Jesus Jewish Johannine John Kleist Knox Koester Latin Letter Writing Lightfoot Lindemann Literature Lord Marcion Marcionite Martyrdom Martyrdom of Polycarp Martyrium Polycarpi martyrs material Meinhold Mohr Siebeck Nielsen Old Testament Oxford Papias paraenesis paraenetic Pastoral Epistles Paul Paul's Peter Phil Philadelphia Philippi Philippians phrase Pionius Polycarp of Smyrna Polycarp's Epistle Polycarp's Two Epistles Polycarpian Polykarp von Smyrna Polykarpbriefe Press Puech quotation reconstruction refers rhetorical righteousness Romans Rome Schoedel scholars Scriptures second century seems Smyrnaeans Steinmetz Stowers Studies Tertullian Theological Timothy tradition Tubingen Valens Zahn