Galaxy Morphology and Classification
The classification of galaxies according to their shape is a fundamental tool in astronomy. It is through classification schemes that astronomers build a deeper understanding of how galaxies form and evolve. This long-awaited book by one of the pioneers of the field provides a concise and up-to-date summary of current ideas about galaxy morphology and classification. This is the first book dedicated entirely to the shape and classification of galaxies. It introduces the most widely used schemes, explains how they have developed and what they can tell us about galaxies. The author shows how very distant galaxies (seen with the Hubble Space Telescope, for instance) often defy standard classification schemes. Finally, he looks at recent work on the use of computers to automatically classify digital images of galaxies. This topical volume provides graduate students and researchers with a unique and indispensable reference on the classification and shape of galaxies.
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2 The Hubble classification system
3 De Vaucouleurs system
4 Elmegreens classification of spiral arms
5 Van den Berghs classification of galaxies
6 Morgans classification system
7 Galactic bars
8 Elliptical galaxies
barred spirals Bender Bergh boxy Carnegie Atlas cD galaxies central concentration central surface brightness classiﬁcation of galaxies classiﬁcation scheme classiﬁcation types concentration of light correlation deﬁned disk galaxies dSph galaxies dwarf spheroidal galaxies early-type galaxies elliptical galaxies Elmegreen exhibit fainter ﬁeld ﬁgure shows ﬁnd ﬁrst ﬂattened fraction frequency galactic galaxies of types Galaxies Sandage galaxy classiﬁcations galaxy morphology galaxy NGC globular clusters Gyr ago Hubble Deep Field Hubble stage Hubble system Hubble type Kormendy late-type spirals low surface brightness luminosity distributions massive Medium Deep Survey Morgan normal and barred normal spirals nuclei objects of type observations ordinary spirals Palomar Sky Survey pitch angle power-law proﬁles redshift regions rich clusters rotating S0 galaxies Sandage & Tammann sequence Seyfert Shapley—Ames Catalog signiﬁcant spiral arms spiral galaxies spiral structure star formation stellar population suggests supergiant surface brightness galaxies tidal interactions Vaucouleurs Virgo cluster Yerkes