Pragmatism in the Age of Jihad: The Precolonial State of Bundu
Bundu is an anomaly among the precolonial Muslim states of West Africa. Founded during the jihads which swept the savannah in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, it developed a pragmatic policy, unique in the midst of fundamentalist, theocratic Muslim states. Located in the Upper Senegal and with access to the Upper Gambia, Bundu played a critical role in regional commerce and production and reacted quickly to the stimulus of European trade. Drawing on a wide range of sources both oral and documentary, Arabic, English and French, Dr. Gomez provides the first full account of Bundu's history. He analyzes the foundation and growth of an Islamic state at a crossroads between the Saharan and trans-Atlantic trade, paying particular attention to the relationship between Islamic thought and court policy, and to the state's response to militant Islam in the early nineteenth century.
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Malik Sy and the origins of a pragmatic polity
Consolidation and expansion in the eighteenth century
External reforms and internal consequences Futa Toro and Bundu
The reassertion of Sissibe integrity
Structure of the Bundunke Almaamate
Struggle for the Upper Senegal Valley
Alhajj Umar in Bundu
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Abdul Bokar Abdul Qadir al-hajj Umar alliance Almaami Amadi Gai ANF 13G ANF 3B ANF-OM Bakel Bambara Bambuk Bathily Bokar Saada Bondou Boulebane Bubu Malik Sy Bundu Bundunke Bundunkobe Campagne Chiefs and Clerics commercial Curtin Dakar Diakite eighteenth century Eliman Etudes Faidherbe Faleme Faleme River Farabana forces French Frey Fulbe Futa Jallon Futa Toro Futanke Gallieni Gamon Goudiry Gray and Dochard Guidimakha Histoire Ibid Issaga Opa Sy Jahanka Jakhanke Jiba Jiba's jihad June Kaarta Kamara Khasso Koussan Lamartiny Lamine's Malik Sy Mamadu Lamine Musa Yero Muslim N'Guenar nineteenth century non-Muslim Paris Pate Gai policies political pragmatic Raffenel raids Rancon reform reign Robinson Roux ruler Saada Amadi Aissata Saint Louis Samba Sanneh Sega Sega Gai Segu Senegambia Senoudebou Shaykh Sissibe slaves Soninke sources southern Gajaaga Sy's Tambacounda Tiyaabu Torodbe trade traditions Travels treaty Tunka Umar Penda Umarians Upper Senegal upper valley Usuman Gassi villages Voyage Walckenaer Wolof Wuli