The Secondary Xylem of Hawaiian Trees

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Bishop Museum Press, 1922 - Trees - 157 pages
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Page 40 - Pisonia is a tree 15 to 30 feet high at elevations of 200-1.600 feet. It is common on the windward wet sides of islands and occurs also in Australia, the Philippines, and Polynesia. The wood is soft and almost herbaceous in character. ''Logs of this tree . . . collected for wood specimens, shriveled . . . like stems of banana plants. Trunks a foot in diameter can be felled with one stroke of the axe" ( 18, p. 145). The dry wood is chambered from the disintegration of the softer tissues to an extent...
Page 17 - ... on any coast, and states (p. 296) that the "coconut palm is not known to exist except as a cultivated plant on any tropical seacoast ... (p. 297). We should find on some tropical coast a place where the palms thrive and multiply, where we find old palms surrounded by flourishing young ones, growing [16] spontaneously, without aid of man, but no such instance has been reported/' Finally he adds (p. 349) : "The theory that it has been disseminated by ocean currents is gratuitous, unproved, and...
Page 18 - Pacific faunas were derived as has often been claimed, from waifs drifted thither on 'natural rafts' or carried by birds from the continents, such migration must have stopped as an effective factor in colonization before Tertiary times, for otherwise it seems unaccountable that all dominant Tertiary snails of the continents are absent, as with our present knowledge, they appear to be. There is small reason for believing that supposed means of mollusk transportation which have failed during the three...
Page 106 - Syzyglum sandwicense (Gray) Ndz. E. sandwicensis is endemic to Hawaii, occurring throughout the group. It occurs on the lowlands and up to 4,000 feet. In the rain forest it attains a height of 60 feet and a diameter of 18 inches. The fruit is edible : the hark yields a black dye. The wood is durable, rather hard, reddish-brown in color, diffuse porous, and possesses an irregular grain. CROSS SECTION Gross. — There are no growth-rings. The vessels are small, visible with a lens, numerous, isolated...
Page 7 - Hawaii are relatively older than those which are nonendemic ; or, in other words, the endemic element indicates, primarily, wrhat forms came first and have therefore been longest on the Islands. His meaning is clear, where, speaking of endemic genera (6, p. 261) he says: ". . . on one point there can be but little danger of going astray, namely, in imputing to them a high antiquity in the floral history of Hawaii.
Page 73 - ... pits. The wood-prosenchyma may be thick- or rather thin-walled and mucilaginous fibers may occur. In species with relatively thin-walled fibers, septae are often found. Wood-parenchyma is sparingly developed. Aleurites moluccana ( L. ) Willd. KUKUI or CANDLENUT. Material, xxviii :x6:1511.
Page 6 - Numerous groups composed of closely related (endemic) species are present, the lineal descendants, in all probability, of a single ancestral immigrant. But the groups are only distantly related, and constitute a heterogeneous whole. Probably the factor which is responsible for the heterogeneity of the groups is the number of sources and climates from which the flora has been derived. Hillebrand (9, p. xvii) recorded a total of 705 species of angiosperms, of which 574. or 81 per cent, are endemic....
Page 7 - Such a high degree of endemism seems clearly to imply great antiquity." But Guppy (6, p. 248) says : "This great preponderance of peculiar [endemic] species and genera in Hawaii is not to be connected with the relative antiquity of the group, but with its degree of isolation.

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