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Materials for LEDs
Types of LED
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absorption acceptor active layer alloyed applications atoms band gap band gap energy bandwidth brightness carrier lifetime carrier recombination cathode charge carrier chemical color composition concentration conduction band degradation depends deposition described detector devices diffusion length dislocation dominant wavelength doping levels edge emitters electron emission epitaxial layer epoxy example exciton fabrication fibers flux forward current frequency Ga^_xAlxAs GaAlAs GaAs GaAs:Si GaAs^_xPx gallium GaP substrate green LEDs growth heterostructure hole III-V compounds impurities increasing infrared injection internal efficiency lattice constant LED chips light emitting diodes lines liquid phase epitaxy material melt metal method nitrogen nonradiative recombination ohmic contacts optical output photon photopic vision plasma pn junction produced radiant flux radiation radiative recombination red LEDs region semiconductor shown in Fig side silicon space charge spectral sputter temperature thermal thickness tion typical vapor phase epitaxy wafers zinc zincblende