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TYPE II SUPERCONDUCTIVITY IN A DEFECT FREE METAL
INFLUENCE OF THE PINNING
THE RESEARCH TECHNIQUES
4 other sections not shown
A/min amperes per minute ascending curve cooling the crystal corresponding Current amperes current pulses current recovery cycle down curve defect sources degradation diagram dipole energy field from zero field raised flux flow condition flux flow region flux line lattice fluxoid high current hysteresis curves hysteresis loop hysteresis width increase Keithley Kramer lattice formed lattice was formed Lorentz force macroscopic magnetic field major down curve major up curve microseconds microvolts minor cycle move nanovoltmeter nanovolts niobium nucleation conditions observed obtained operational amplifier orientation pinning force pinning planes potentiometer pulse duration raised from zero raising the field ramped recovery curve recovery rate reference voltage resistor rH rH rH screw dislocation shear modulus shear stress speed superconducting surface pinning sweep unit switching temperature type II superconductor V-I characteristic V-I curve voltage change voltage recovery voltage-current vortex lattice vortex lines vortices wire zero unbent crystal