Green Imperialism: Colonial Expansion, Tropical Island Edens and the Origins of Environmentalism, 1600-1860
This is the first book to document the origins and early history of environmentalism, concentrating especially on its hitherto unexplained colonial and global aspects. It highlights the significance of Utopian, physiocratic and medical thinking in the history of environmental ideas. The book shows how the new critique of the colonial impact on the environment depended on the emergence of a coterie of professional scientists, especially in the Dutch, French and English maritime empires. The prime importance of the oceanic island 'Eden' as a vehicle for new conceptions of nature is emphasised, and the significance of colonial island environments in stimulating conservationist notions is underlined, revealing how, for the first time, the limitability of local and global resources could be recognised.
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Edens islands and early empires
Indigenous knowledge and the significance of SouthWest India for Portuguese and Dutch constructions of tropical nature
The English and Dutch East India companies and the seventeenth century environmental crisis in the colonies
Stephen Hales and some Newtonian antecedents of climatic environmentalism 17001763
Protecting the climate of paradise Pierre Poivre and the conservation of Mauritius under the ancien régime
Climate conservation and Carib resistance The British and the forests of the Eastern Caribbean 17601800
The beginnings of global environmentalism Professional science oceanic islands and the East India Company 17681838
Diagnosing crisis The East India Company medical services and the emergence of state conservationism in India 17601857
The colonial state and the origins of western environmentalism
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agriculture Alexander Alexander Beatson Anderson Balfour Banks Barbados Beatson became Bernardin de Saint-Pierre Bombay botanical garden botanist British Calcutta Cape Caribs Cleghorn climate colonial colonists Commerson connection consequences conservation conservationism conservationist context cultivation deforestation Dutch early East India Company ecological economic eighteenth century emergence empirical English environment environmental Europe European example extinction Ezhava famine forest protection forest reservation Forster France French Gibson global governor Hortus Hortus malabaricus Humboldt Ibid ideas impact important Indies indigenous influence interest knowledge land landscape later letter London Madras Malabar Mauritius Nathaniel Wallich natural history naturalists observations paradise particularly physiocratic Pierre Poivre Pierre Sonnerat plantation Poivre's political Port Louis quoted rainfall role Rousseau Roxburgh Saint-Pierre scientific scientists significant Soame Jenyns social Society of Arts soil erosion species St Helena St Vincent Stephen Hales surgeons teak theories timber Tobago tree planting voyage William Roxburgh wood