Beyond behavior: construction of an overarching psychological theory of lifestyles
Rejecting behavior as the proper topic of study in psychology, Walters defines the subject matter for psychology as the human organism's interaction with the internal and external environments. In offering an overarching theoretical model based on 12 different theoretical traditions, Walters runs counter to the currently popular practice in psychology of constructing conceptual mini-models that restrict themselves to highly circumscribed areas of psychological inquiry. In Walters' view, the proliferation of mini-models has given the field a fragmented appearance. A major tenant of the overarching theoretical conceptualization presented by Walters is that people try to manage threats to their existence by either adapting to ongoing environmental change or enacting patterned interactions known as lifestyles. These lifestyles, which are comprised of specific rules, roles, rituals, and relationships, can be organized into four general families; leader, follower, rebel, and disabled. In addition to lifestyle structure, Walters examines the three factors believed to be responsible for selection of a lifestyle over adaptation and preference for one lifestyle over another: incentive or type of fear experienced, opportunity or specific learning experiences, and choice or decision making apparatus. Walters provides a novel approach to the study of psychology, outlining the structure of lifestyles and discussing the role of motivation and learning in the selection of lifestyles and people's preference for one lifestyle over another. A provocative work of particular interest to scholars, students, and professionals dealing with theories of psychology, personality, and social interaction.
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The Conceptual Roots of Lifestyle Theory
Three Models in One
A MultiAxial Classification System
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Abnormal Psychology adolescent alcohol American Psychological Association amygdala anorexia nervosa Applied Behavior Analysis attachment style Attribution theory autonomic nervous system Bandura Behavioral geneticists behavioral genetics Carl Rogers chaos theory chaotic attractor Child Development classical conditioning Clinical Psychology cognitive Crime and Punishment Criminology cultural anthropology Developmental Psychology dopamine Dostoyevsky dynamical systems theory eating disorders endoskeleton Environmental Psychology epistemological evolutionary biology existential fear Existentialists family of lifestyles five temperament fixed action patterns fractals Frequently Usually functional autonomy gene-environment interaction heredity holism hominid hypercompetitiveness interactive style interpersonal relationships Learned helplessness lifestyle theory limbic system locus of control Loehlin logotherapy Luzhin marijuana medial forebrain bundle Motivational interviewing neural networks neurons Never Rarely Sometimes nonlinear dynamical object relations theory observational learning overarching theory Pathological gambling patterned interaction Pavlovian conditioning pawnbroker philosophy of science phobias Plomin primal fear problem gambling Psychiatry Psychoactive Drugs psychotherapy Rarely Sometimes Half Raskolnikov reductionism rhesus monkeys saber-toothed tiger secondary gain self-efficacy shaman sick role social control theory social learning theory Social Psychology social rule Sociobiology stimuli stressors symbolic interactionalism teleological Terror management theory twin study unconditioned stimulus Viktor Frankl withdrawal reflex