Exploring the Biological Contributions to Human Health:: Does Sex Matter?

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National Academies Press, Jul 2, 2001 - Medical - 288 pages
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It's obvious why only men develop prostate cancer and why only women get ovarian cancer. But it is not obvious why women are more likely to recover language ability after a stroke than men or why women are more apt to develop autoimmune diseases such as lupus.

Sex differences in health throughout the lifespan have been documented. Exploring the Biological Contributions to Human Health begins to snap the pieces of the puzzle into place so that this knowledge can be used to improve health for both sexes. From behavior and cognition to metabolism and response to chemicals and infectious organisms, this book explores the health impact of sex (being male or female, according to reproductive organs and chromosomes) and gender (one's sense of self as male or female in society).

Exploring the Biological Contributions to Human Health discusses basic biochemical differences in the cells of males and females and health variability between the sexes from conception throughout life. The book identifies key research needs and opportunities and addresses barriers to research.

Exploring the Biological Contributions to Human Health will be important to health policy makers, basic, applied, and clinical researchers, educators, providers, and journalists-while being very accessible to interested lay readers.

  

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Contents

INTRODUCTION
13
Definitions
17
EVERY CELL HAS ASEX
28
Unexpected or Nonobvious Sex Differences
41
Puberty
62
Findings and Recommendations
77
SEXAFFECTS BEHAVIOR AND PERCEPTION
79
Frequency distribution of scores on a hypothetical cognitive test
85
Schematic representation of absorption distribution metabolism
119
The major affectors of body fat
132
Death rates for diseases of the heart by age and sex 19951997
161
THE FUTURE OF RESEARCHON BIOLOGICAL
173
Schematic representations of two general models used to explain
178
REFERENCES
185
APPENDIXES
229
Glossary
239

Behavioral development in rodents
96
Composite images of the distribution of activations upon perfor
103
SEXAFFECTS HEALTH
117

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Page 215 - MG, et al. (1998) Evidence for association and genetic linkage of the angiotensin-converting enzyme locus with hypertension and blood pressure in men but not women in the framingham heart study. Circulation 97 ', 1766-1772.

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