A History of the Menhaden

Front Cover
Orange Judd Company, 1880 - Menhaden fisheries - 529 pages
 

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Contents

Arrangement and number of scales
34
The swim bladder
35
Southern limit of range
36
Range of other species of the genus
37
The arrival and departures of the schools
38
Review of the dates of movement upon the entire coast
39
Stay on the coast of North Carolina
40
Stay on the coast of Virginia and Chesapeake Bay
41
Stay on the coast of Now Jersey
42
Stay in Long Island Sound 73 Stay in Block Island Sound
43
Stay in Narragansett Bry 76 Stay in Marthas Vineyard Sound
45
Table showing dates of appearance of menhaden at Waquoit Weir 185972
46
Stay in Cape Cod Bay 81 Stay about Cape Ann 82 Stay in the Gulf of Maine
48
Mr Maddocks account of the movements of the schools on the coast of Maide
50
The influence of ocean temperatures upon the movements of the menhaden
52
General considerations as to the winter retreat of summer fishes
56
8 The theory of extended migrations discussed with special reference to the mackerel
62
The arguments against oxtended migrations of the menbaden
65
The hypothesis of the oceanic sojourn of the mophaden
66
A criticism of Rimbauds classification with a new classification by habits of east coast fishes
68
The movements of the schools of menhaden
70
Movements of the schools to and from the surface
71
Review of the success of the fisheries in New England since 1865 by Mr D
88
SECTION H THE ENEMIES AND FATALITIES OF THE MENHADENContinued 25 Parasites of the menhadenContinued
101
Inferences to be drawn from the presence of these parasites
103
Other parasites
104
The destructireness of sharks
105
Ravages of the bluefish and the bonito
106
The menhadon driven upon the shores
107
Captain Spindels account of the ravages of the bluefish
108
An estimate of the number of menbaden annually consumed by predaceous fish
109
Man and the fisheries
110
Comments upon these allegations
111
Professor Hinds unwarranted statements
112
THE MESIIADEN FISHERIES
113
Difficulty experienced in obtaining statistics
114
Tisheries in Massachusetts
115
Fisheries in Connecticut
116
Fisheries in Virginia and North Carolina
117
The seineboats
120
The sailing ressels See also Appendix I
122
Certain requirements of purseseine fishing
123
The best time of day for using the purseseine
124
Fishing on the coast of Massachusetts
125
lishing on the coast of Maine
127
Gill net fishing on the coast of Maino
128
Weir fishing for menbaden
129
Fishing for fatbacks in North Carolica
131
The menhaden fishery and land industries
132
Laws regulating the menhaden fishery of Massachusetts
133
SUPERSECTION ECONOMICAL VALUE AND APPLICATIONS OF THE MENFADEN
135
Menbaden gelted See also Appendix G
136
SECTION K THE MENHADEN AS A SOURCE OF FOODContinued 36 Foodpreparations derived from the menhaden
137
The qualities of American sardines
138
Mr Goodales Extract of FishMethods of pre and uses
139
Possiblo yield of Extract of Fish
140
THE MENHADEN AS A BAITFISH
141
Comparative value of menhaden and other bait
142
Comparative value of herring and menhadon for tollbait
143
The testimony of Canadian officers as to the value of menbaden bait
146
Testimony before the Halifax Commission regarding the greater value of menhaden bait
147
The use of menhaden bait in coast fisheries
148
Estimate of the annual consumption of menbaden bait
149
Use of menhaden bait by the Georges Bank fleet
150
Use of menbaden bait by the Connecticut smacks
151
The Connecticut method of icing bait
152
Conflicts between baitfishermen and manufacturers of oil
155
Present aspects of the conflict in Maine
156
Claims of Hor Majestys government
157
Reply of the agent of the United States
158
Reply in behalf of Her Britannic Majestys government
159
Other references to the menhaden in the testimony and affidavits
160
The argument of Mr Dana
161
Tho claims of Connecticut and New York
162
The inception of the oil business in Maino
164
The location of the oilfactories See also Appendix H
165
Factories in Rhode Island
166
Factories in New York
167
Factories in New Jersey
168
Factories on the Southern coast
169
A description of processes employed in manufacture
170
The factory of George W Mies Co
171
The factory of Joseph Church Co
172
The factory at Napeague N Y
173
The model of the factory of Joseph Cburch Co
174
Organization of the fishing gangs
176
Mr Goodales improved method for extracting the oil
177
Proposed chemical method
178
Prices proportionate to amount of oil to be obtained from the fish
180
Oil yield of southern fish
183
Statistics of the manufacture of oil and guano
184
Returns for the United States
187
Comparative yield of oil from the men baden and whale fisheries
190
Comparative yield of nitrogen from the menbadenfactories and from the imports of bird guano
191
The markets for menbaden oil
192
Reviews of the market for individual years
193
SECTION N MEXHADEN AND OTHER FISH AND THEIR PRODUCTS AS RELATED TO AGRICULTURE By W 0 Atwater See also Appendix 0
194
Menhaden in a fresh state used as a fertilizer
195
Use at beginning of present century and later
196
Use at present day
200
Experience in Connecticut Mr Clift
201
Experience of Mr Hall and Mr Loveland
203
Statements of Professor Cook of New Jersey
205
Kinds of fertilizers made from fish refuse
219
ishguano methods of manufacture and needs of improvement statements of Professor Goessmanr
223
Statement of Mr Maddocks manufacture in Maice
224
Adamsons process
225
Immense waste of fish at present Possibilities of future manufacture
226
Manufacture of ammoniated superphosphates
227
Chemical composition of menhaden and other fish and of fish manures
228
Analyses of wholo menhaden ond of flesh and bones of whalo 228 VO 299 Analyses of fish fertilizers
229
Waste from faulty manufacture and use of fish fertilizers
230
Essential ingredients of plant food
231
Ingredients commonly lacking in wornout soils and hence most important in ferti lizers
233
Explanation of chemical terms used in fertilizer analyses
234
Valuations of commercial fertilizers See also Appendix O
235
Relative values of different fertilizers Fish and Peruvian guano
244
Ways of improving fish manure fermentation
247
Feeding to stock
248
Danger in using fish fertilizers alone
249
Fish as food for domestic animals
250
General principles of feeding maintenance and production
251
Digestion of foods by animals as tested by European experiments
254
What is essential to economy in feeding Proportions of albuminoids and carbo hydrates
255
Composition and valuations of various food materials German tables
256
Early experience in use of fish as food for stock Feeding cattle on fish in Massa chusetts
258
Other European experience
259
Experiment of Professor Farrington on fish scrap vs cornmeal for sheep
260
European experiments on digestion and nutritive valae of fish
263
General conclusions
264
Recapitulation
265
Fish as food for stock
266
APPENDIX A Circular relating to statistics of the menbadea fishery
268
APPENDIX B List of correspondents from whom contributions have been received
271
Bibliography of literature relating to the mephaden
274
Extracts from writings of ichthyologists relating to the menhaden
279
From Mitchills Fishes of New York Transactions of Literary and Philosophical Society of New York 1815 p 453
282
From Storers History of the Fishes of Massachusetts 1867 p 168
283
From Dekays Zoology of New York Fishes 1842 p 259
286
From Uhler and Luggers List of the Fishes of Maryland 1876 p 133
287
From GŁnthers Catalogue of Fishes in the British Museum VII p 436
288
APPENDIX F Tables of ocean temperatures for certain points on the east coast of the United
291
Partial list of vessels employed in the menhaden fishery
297
Proceedings of the United States Menhaden Oil and Guano Association
358
Annual reports of menhaden oil and guano manufacturers in the State of Maine
368
APPENDIX N Statements of correspondents Continued
373
collector Belfast Me
375
Statement of Washington Olin keeper of Pond Island light near Booth Bay Mo
393
Statement of William Atwood lighthouse keeper Plymouth Mass February
404
Statement of David F Loring Cape Cod lightstation North Truro Mass February 23 1875
409
Statement of Josiah Hardy 2d Chatham Mass February 17 1874 and January
410
Statement of Alonzo Y Lothrop Hyannis Mass February 18 1874 and January
412
Statement of William S Allen Nantucket Mass January 1875
413
Statement of R C Kenney Nantucket Mass January 21 1874
414
Statement of C B Marchant collector of customs Edgartown Mass January
416
Statement of Jason Luce Co North Tisbury Mass January 6 1875
417
Statement of Luce Brothers East Lyme December 4 1877
418
Statement of E T De Blois Portsmouth R I November 26 1877
425
Statement of William H Potter Mystic River Conn January 27 1874
428
Statement of John Washington Mystic Conn December 30 1874
430
Statement of Leander Wilcox Mystic Bridge Conn January 15 1875
431
Statement of Samuel C Beebe Cornfield Point lightvessel No 12 Saybrook Conn January 6 1875
432
Statement of R E Ingham Saybrook lighthouse Saybrook Conn March 17 1874
433
Statement of J L Stokes Westbrook Conn February 25 1875
435
Statement of B Lillingston Stratford Conn February 23 1874
437
Statement of W S Havens Sag Harbor N Y January 1 1875
441
Statement of Hawking Brothers Jamesport N Y February 25 1875
443
Statement of Benjamin H Sisson Greenport R I January 29 1874
445
Statement of David G Vail River Head Long Island March 20 1875
447
Statement of Joseph Whaley Point Judith light Point Judith R I December
449
Statement of A G Wolf Absecom light Atlantic City N J March 6 1874
450
Statement of Albert Morris Somers Point N J January 12 1875
451
Statement of D E Foster Cape May lighthouse N J February 15 1875
453
Statement of James H Bell Mispillion River Delawaro Bay January 23 1875
454
Statement of Benjamin Tice Maurice River light January 11 1875
457
Statement of Hance Lawson Crisfield Md January 22 1874
458
Statement of Isaac D Robbins Hog Island February 21 1874
460
Statement of G Henry Seldon Kinsale Westmoreland County Va August 1874
461
Statement of Henry Richardson Capo Henry February 9 1874
464
Statement of C G Manning Edenton N C January 6 1875
465
Statement of A W Simpson jr Cape Hatteras N C January 20 1875
470
Statement of A W Simpson jr Cape Hatteras N C January 25 1875
471
Statement of Wallace R Jennett Cape Hatteras N C February 26 1874
474
Statement of A C Davis Beaufort N C February 14 1874 and January 27 1875
475
Statement of W T Hatsel Bodys Island N C March 4 1874 and February 23 1875
477
Statement of W A Harn Morris Island S C January 21 1875
478
Statement of George Gage Beaufort S C January 20 1874
479
Statement of J F Hall Brunswick Ga April 11 1876
481
Statement of Charles Koch Jacksonville Fla January 15 1874
482
Statement of D P Kane Matagorda Texas March 1 1874
483
Letter from C A Goessman on the agricultural value of menhaden fertilizers
485
A description of the factory of the Pacific Gaano Company at Woods Holl M489
487
The Cumberland Bone Companys works
491
The Quinnipiac Fertilizer Companys works
492
The Crowell Manufacturing Company
493
Method of calculating costs of valuable ingredients of fertilizers By W 0 Atwater
495
Improved methods of drying fishscrap
502
APPENDIX Q Supplementary works September 22 1878
506
The spawning grounds of the menhaden
507
Menhaden fishing on a Long Island steamer By Ernest Ingersoll
512
Small oiltrying in Maine 1860
513
The use of fish for manure by the early colonists of Massachusetts
514
Esplanation of plates
515
Alphabetical index
519
APPENDIX E Catalogue of specimens in the Uvited States National Museum illustrating the history of the menbaden 289
522

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