The Elements of Botany for Beginners and for Schools

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American Book Company, 1887 - Botany - 226 pages
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Page 219 - Runcinate : coarsely saw-toothed or cut, the pointed teeth turned towards the base of the leaf, as the leaf of a Dandelion. Runner : a slender and prostrate branch, rooting at the end, or at the joints, as of a Strawberry, p.
Page 132 - The size of the common cells of plants varies from about the thirtieth to the thousandth of an inch in diameter. An ordinary size is from...
Page 101 - ... anther is Innate (as in Fig. 232), when it is attached by its base to the very apex of the filament, turning neither inwards nor outwards ; or Adnate (as in Fig. 233), when attached by one face, usually for its whole length, to the side of the filament • and Versatile (as in Fig. 234), when fixed by...
Page 37 - Mistletoe, the seed of which germinates on the bough of the tree where it falls or is left by birds ; and the forming root penetrates the bark and engrafts itself into the wood, to which it becomes united as firmly as a natural branch to its parent stem ; and indeed the parasite lives just as if it were a branch of the tree it grows and feeds on. A most common parasitic herb is the Dodder; which abounds in low grounds...
Page 30 - Adventitious Buds. These are buds which certain shrubs and trees produce anywhere on the surface of the wood, especially where it has been injured. They give rise to the slender twigs which often feather so beautifully the sides of great branches or trunks of our American Elms.
Page 186 - ... of such paper, either by slips of gummed paper, or by glue applied to the specimens themselves. Each sheet should be appropriated to one species ; two or more different plants should never be attached to the same sheet. The generic and specific name of the plant should be added to the lower right-hand corner, either written on the sheet, or on a ticket pasted down at that corner; and the time of collection, the locality, the color of the flowers, and any other information which the specimens...
Page 111 - Straight, those which develop without curving or turn846 847 ing, as in Fig. 344. The chalaza is at the insertion or base ; the foramen or orifice is at the apex. This is the simplest, but the least common kind of ovule. Campylotropous or Incurved, in which, by the greater growth of one side, the ovule curves into a kidney-shaped outline, so bringing the orifice down close to the base or chalaza; as in Fig. 345.
Page 62 - Onion fulfils the same office, and the nourishing matter it prepares is deposited In its sheathing base, forming one of the concentric layers of the onion. When these layers, so thick and succulent, have given up their store to the growing parts within, they are left as thin and dry husks.
Page 92 - WINGS (a/ce), the pair of side petals, of quite different shape from the standard. The KEEL (carina), the two lower and usually smallest petals; these are lightly coalescent into a body which bears some likeness, not to the keel, but to the prow of a boat; and this incloses the stamens and pistil. A Pea blossom is a typical example. 267. Labiate corolla (Figs. 198-200), which would more properly have been called bilabiate, that is, two-lipped.
Page 177 - However tbat may be, species are regarded as permanent and essentially unchanged in their succession of individuals through the actual ages. 527. There are, at nearly the lowest computation, as many as one hundred thousand species of phanerogamous plants, and the cryptogamous species are thought to be still more numerous. They are all connected by resemblances or relationships, near and remote, which show that they are all parts of one system, realizations in nature, as we may affirm, of the conception...

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