## The Fundamental Operations in Bead Arithmetic: How to Use the Chinese Abacus |

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30 equals 9 and forward abacists abacus for convenience add the sum addition and subtraction annex one cipher Annex two ciphers Bead Arithmetic cancel five cancel four cancel three CHINESE ABACUS Chinese books ciphers and add column to left column vacant cube number cube root Divided by five dividend figure divisor equals 12 equals 35 equals 9 Example figure multiplied final root number frame given number Hence the quotient Insufficient left column left-hand figure left-hand period left-hand side Long Division lower five lumn method of procedure metic metres minuend minus move multi multiplicand and subtract MULTIPLIER IS EXPRESSED nine number and add obtained partial product pen arithmetic Place the number proceed quotient figure remainder return five return four right-hand figure right-hand side second column second figure seven short division solving square number square root subtract the sum third column third figure three figures units whole number