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IIntroduction and order of exposition
IIGeneral lines of the history of biological thought since Democritus up to the nineteenth century
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abiogenesis absolute probability according action activities adaptation admit affirms animals argument assertion atoms behaviour Bertalanffy biologists casual cause cells chance characteristics chemical complex conception consider coordination cybernetics degree of regularity deny determinism deterministic differential directional factor Driesch Drieschian dynamic entelechy entropy environment equifinality equiprobability evolution existence experimental explain fact favour finalism finalistic formation frequency functional genes holism hypothesis improbable individual influence instance J. B. S. Haldane Legons less living body living organism living structures machine material mathematical matter means mechanism mechanistic metabolism microevolution molecules morphogenesis mutations natural selection Nevertheless observed occur open systems organicism organicists panpsychism panpsychistic phenomenon physical physico-chemical possible precisely preferential laws problem properties protoplasm psyche psychical R. A. Fisher reality realization regimen of equiprobability reproduction sense species struc substance succession teleology theoretical theory tion total chance unity universe various vegetative biological phenomena vitalistic whole