Creativity In Context: Update To The Social Psychology Of Creativity

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Westview Press, Jun 7, 1996 - Psychology - 336 pages
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Creativity in Context is an update of The Social Psychology of Creativity, a classic text for researchers, students, and other interested readers. Creativity in Context incorporates extensive new material, going far beyond the original to provide a comprehensive picture of how the motivation for creative behavior, and creativity itself, can be influenced by the social environment.Teresa Amabile describes new findings from both her own research and from the work of many others in the field, detailing not only the ways in which creativity can be killed by social-psychological influences, but also the ways in which it can be maintained and stimulated. The research and the theory have moved beyond a narrow focus on the immediate social environment to a consideration of broad social influences in business organizations, classrooms, and society at large; beyond a documentation of social influences to a consideration of the cognitive mechanisms by which social factors might impact creativity; and beyond subject populations consisting of children and college students to an inclusion of professional artists, research scientists, and other working adults.Amabile describes a greatly expanded set of methodologies for assessing creativity, and introduces a set of methodologies for assessing the social environment for creativity in non-experimental studies. Throughout, the book maintains a clear focus on a comprehensive view of creativity—how the social context can influence motivation and how motivation, in conjunction with personal skills and thinking styles, can lead to the expression of creative behavior within that context. The result is a clarified theory of how creativity actually happens, with strong implications for supporting and increasing essential aspects of human performance.
 

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Leitura árdua, acho eu, mas imperdível. Modela o processo de criatividade dentro das empresas. Destaca que as pessoas mais criativas no ambiente empresarial tem conhecimento; uma forma de pensamento criativo estruturado e "task orientation", que eu traduzi como motivação interna. A motivação interna tem, como componentes: a aceitação de situações de risco, a facilidade de lidar com situações ambíguas, para citar alguns aspectos.
Para quem quer entender como funciona esta questão de criatividade dentro das empresas; do ponto de vista do indivíduo e de facilitação de grupos.
Ler Innovation Solution, do Christensen e Creativity in context ajuda a fazer o link entre criatividade e inovação.
 

Selected pages

Contents

The Case for a Social Psychology of Creativity
4
Some Social Psychological Stories
6
Intrinsic versus Extrinsic Motivation
16
Update
17
The Meaning and Measurement of Creativity
20
Previous Approaches to Creativity Definition
21
Previous Approaches to Creativity Measurement
23
A Consensual Definition of Creativity
34
Constraint
177
Social Facilitation Modeling and Motivational Orientation
180
Evidence on the Social Facilitation and Inhibition of Creativity
183
Modeling Influences on Creative Individuals
186
Experimental Studies of Modeling
190
A Theoretical Analysis
193
An Empirical Demonstration
194
Summary
198

A Conceptual Definition of Creativity
36
Update
38
A Consensual Technique for Creativity Assessment
42
The Consensual Assessment of Artistic Creativity
45
The Consensual Assessment of Verbal Creativity
55
A Summary of Major Findings
61
Comparison with Previous Techniques
64
Limitations and Future Possibilities
66
A Wider Context
68
Reliability Calculation
69
New Creativity Tasks
70
Issues and Changes in the Consensual Assessment Technique
73
Other Uses of the Consensual Assessment Technique
79
A Theoretical Framework
82
Preliminary Assumptions and Observations
83
The Components of Creative Performance
84
A Componential Framework
94
The Intrinsic Motivation Hypothesis of Creativity
108
Update
113
Empirical Support for the Componential Model
123
Comparison to Other Comprehensive Models
125
Effects of Evaluation on Creativity
132
Intrinsic Motivation Creativity and the Nature of the Task
134
The Basic Research Paradigm
135
Impact of Evaluation Expectation
136
Impact of Actual Evaluation
146
Summary
150
Update
151
Summary
153
Effects of Reward and Task Constraint
154
Previous Research
156
Effects of Reward on Childrens Creativity
163
The Interaction of Reward and Choice
166
Choice in Aspects of Task Engagement
170
Summary
172
Update
199
Motivational Orientation
200
Summary
203
Other Social and Environmental Influences
204
Work Environments
211
Family Influences
212
Societal Political and Cultural Influences
214
Other Influences on Creativity
223
Summary
229
Update
230
Educational Environments
231
Family Influences
237
Other Influences on Creativity
238
Summary
241
Implications for Enhancing Creativity
244
CreativityTraining Programs
245
A Review of Social Influences on Creativity
249
Implications for Education and Childrearing
251
Implications for the Arts the Sciences and Industry
254
Update
258
Supporting Childrens Creativity
261
Supporting Creativity in Work Organizations
262
Summary
263
Toward a Comprehensive Psychology of Creativity
264
Current Status
265
Future Directions
267
Integrating Theoretical Perspectives
269
Update
271
Next Steps in Research
273
Theoretical Advances
274
Conclusion
275
References to the 1983 Edition
276
References to the Updates
296
Index
308
Copyright

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Page 2 - It is in fact nothing short of a miracle that the modern methods of instruction have not yet entirely strangled the holy curiosity of inquiry; for this delicate little plant, aside from stimulation, stands mainly in need of freedom; without this it goes to wrack and ruin without fail.
Page 106 - The hitch in this was, of course, the fact that one had to cram all this stuff into one's mind for the examinations, whether one liked it or not. This coercion had such a deterring effect [upon me] that, after I had passed the final examination, I found the consideration of any scientific problems distasteful to me for an entire year.
Page 2 - It is, in fact, nothing short of a miracle that the modern methods of instruction have not yet entirely strangled the holy curiosity of inquiry; for this delicate little plant, aside from stimulation, stands mainly in need of freedom; without this it goes to wreck and ruin without fail.
Page 19 - new" comes into being: One natural question often raised is: How do we ever get new verbal creations such as a poem or a brilliant essay? The answer is that we get them by manipulating words, shifting them about until a new pattern is hit upon.
Page 7 - It is only an evening," people say to me over and over again ; but they don't know that it is impossible to command one's self sometimes to any stipulated and set disposal of five minutes, — or that the mere consciousness of an engagement will sometimes worry a whole day. These are the penalties paid for writing books. Whoever is devoted to an art must be content to deliver himself wholly up to it, and to find his recompense in it I am grieved if you suspect me of not wanting to see you, but I...
Page 13 - When I returned to America in the spring of 1931, although I had three or four hundred thousand words of material, I had nothing that could be published as a novel. Almost a year and a half had elapsed since the publication of my first book and already people had begun to ask that question which is so well meant, but which as year followed year was to become more intolerable to my ears than the most deliberate mockery: "Have you finished your next book yet?" "When is it going to be published?
Page 106 - I soon learned to scent out that which was able to lead to fundamentals and to turn aside from everything else, from the multitude of things which clutter up the mind and divert it from the essential...
Page 85 - All this fires my soul, and, provided I am not disturbed, my subject enlarges itself, becomes methodised and defined, and the whole, though it be long, stands almost complete and finished in my mind, so that I can survey it, like a fine picture or a beautiful statue, at a glance. Nor do I hear in my imagination the parts successively, but I hear them, as it were, all at once (gleich alles zusammen).
Page 13 - There was only one thing for me to do and that was to keep my eyes fixed on the compass.
Page 34 - ... will be judged as creative to the extent that (a) it is both a novel and appropriate, useful, correct or valuable response to the task at hand, and (b) the task is heuristic rather than algorithmic (Amabile, 1996).

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About the author (1996)

Teresa M. Amabile is professor of business administration at Harvard University.

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