Biological Systematics: The state of the art
To some potential readers of this book the description of Biological System atics as an art may seem outdated and frankly wrong. For most people art is subjective and unconstrained by universal laws. While one picture, play or poem may be internally consistent comparison between different art products is meaningless except by way of the individual artists. On the other hand modern Biological Systematics - particularly phenetics and cladistics - is offered as objective and ultimately governed by universal laws. This implies that classifications of different groups of organisms, being the products of systematics, should be comparable irrespective of authorship. Throughout this book Minelli justifies his title by developing the theme that biological classifications are, in fact, very unequal in their expressions of the pattern and processes of the natural world. Specialists are imbibed with their own groups and tend to establish a consensus of what constitutes a species or a genus, or whether it should be desirable to recognize sub species, cultivars etc. Ornithologists freely recognize subspecies and rarely do bird genera contain more than 10 species. On the other hand some coleopterists and botanists work with genera with over 1500 species. This asymmetry may reflect a biological reality; it may express a working practicality, or simply an historical artefact (older erected genera often contain more species). Rarely are these phenomena questioned.
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according to Margulis et al 1990
Ehlerss 1985 system of Plathelminthes
Weygoldt and Pauluss 1979 system of the Chelicerata
Hennigs 1985 system of the Chordata
The major groups of Chordata according to Nelson 1969
Lauder and Liems 1983 classification of living bony fishes
Bremers 1985 cladistic classification of green plants
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according algae analysis ancestor angiosperms animals arthropods Association Special Volume Biol biological species biological systematics birds characters clade cladistic cladogram Class Classification of Living Code Coleoptera Corliss Cracraft described developed Diptera diversity Donoghue eukaryotes evolution evolutionary example Family fossil fungi gene genera genetic genus Ghiselin groups Hawksworth Hennig higher taxa homology homoplasy hybridization incertae sedis Infraclass infraspecific insects Kingdom Linnaean Linnaeus Living Organisms major mammals Mayr McGraw-Hill Metazoa metazoans methods Minelli molecular evidence monophyletic monophyly morphological mtDNA names natural nomenclature Order Ordo origin Oxford paraphyletic parsimony Parvorder pattern personal communication phenetic phyla Phylogenetic Systematics phylogenetic tree phylogeny Phylum plesiomorphic populations problems protists rank recent recognized reconstruction regarded rRNA S.P. Parker sequences sister-group speciation species concept studies Subclass Subfamily Suborder subspecies suggested Superfamily Superorder synapomorphies Synopsis and Classification Syst Systematics Association Special systematists taxa taxon taxonomic tetrapods Tribe University Press vertebrates whereas Zool