Geopolitics, Geography, and Strategy
Colin S. Gray, Geoffrey R. Sloan
Psychology Press, 1999 - Political Science - 289 pages
Geopolitical conditions influence all strategic behaviour - even when cooperation among different kinds of military power is expected as the norm, action has to be planned and executed in specific physical environments. The geographical world cannot be avoided, and it happens to be 'organized' into land, sea, air and space - and possibly the electromagnetic spectrum including 'cyberspace'. Although the meaning of geography for strategy is a perpetual historical theme, explicit theory on the subject is only one hundred years old. Ideas about the implication of geographical, especially spatial, relationships for political power - which is to say 'geopolitics'- flourished early in the twentieth century.
Divided into theory and practice sections, this volume covers the big names such as Mackinder, Mahan and Haushofer, as well as looking back at the vital influence of weather and geography on naval power in the long age of sail (sixteenth to nineteenth centuries). It also looks forward to the consequences of the revival of geopolitics in post-Soviet Russia and the new space-based field of "astropolitics".
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A.T. Mahan Air Force air power aircraft Alfred Thayer Mahan allied altitude American argued Army assets astropolitical attack Balkans boundaries Britain British campaign Channel coalition coast combat command concept conflict critical geopolitics cultural defense Desert Storm dimension of strategy dominance Earth East economic effect enemy environment Eurafrica Europe European factors fifth dimension fleet foreign policy French geopolitical theory Geopolitik geostationary orbit geostrategic German Giulio Douhet global Halford Mackinder Haushofer's heartland theory Hess Hitler Ibid important Influence of Sea information power infosphere Iraqi Karl Haushofer Khafji land power latitude launch Lebensraum Libicki London longitude Mackinder's major maritime military modern Munich national security naval supremacy navigation Navy North nuclear operations orbit physical geography potential region relationship Russia satellites sea power ships significant Sir Halford Mackinder Soviet Union space spacecraft strategic tactical terrain territory threat Tuathail United warfare weapons wind
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