Comparative Wood Anatomy: Systematic, Ecological, and Evolutionary Aspects of Dicotyledon Wood

Front Cover
Springer Science & Business Media, Mar 13, 2001 - Technology & Engineering - 448 pages
This book is not concerned directly with wood identification, although ability to recognize the wood features discussed in the preceding chapters is essential for work in wood identification. The present chapter is concerned with how wood characters have been and can be used in taxonomic and phylogenetic studies - and also which wood characters are likely or not likely to be useful, in general. In wood identification, a match of an unknown wood with known woods is usually attempted. In systematic application of wood data, similari ties and differences among species, genera, and families are assessed ( usually, today, in terms of a cladistic analysis). One should be especially cautious in interpreting relation between taxa the woods of which have attained similar evolutionary levels. This possibility is a very real one, because so many wood features have evolved similarly in phylads that are not closely related to each other. For example, storied wood structure has been attained in a number of phylads independently. By itself storied wood structure cannot be used as an indicator of relationship between two families, but a cladogram ( using a range of phyletically reliable features) might demoo strate that two families acquired storied structure before divergence ( a synapo morphy) and thereby a strong case for relationship of the two families is made.
 

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Contents

Methods for Comparative Wood Anatomy Studies
1
12 Sources of Wood Samples and Wood Sample Preservation
3
13 Literature on Comparative Wood Anatomy
4
14 Terminology
5
15 Sequence of Features and Conventions for Data Presentation
7
Growth Rings
9
23 Factors in Classification of Growth Rings
10
24 Description of Growth Ring Types
14
63 Ray Types Problems in Definition
187
64 The Kribs Ray Types
190
65 Paedomorphic Ray Types
200
66 Raylessness
204
67 Aggregate Rays
209
68 Ray Dimorphism
212
610 Ray Histology
214
611 Systematic Distribution of Ray Types
224

25 Interxylary Cork
33
26 Modifiability of Growth Rings
35
28 Cell Length with Respect to Growth Rings
36
Vessel Elements
39
32 Types of Vessel Elements
40
33 Vessel Dimensions
43
34 Vessel Grouping
46
35 Vessel Density
54
37 The Perforation Plate
61
38 Lateral Wall Pitting of Vessels
74
39 Crateriform Pits
86
311 Verrucae on Vessel Walls
92
312 Helical Sculpture on Vessel Walls
94
313 Vessel Wall in Transection
103
314 Tyloses
104
315 Trabeculae
106
Imperforate Tracheary Elements
107
42 Nature of the Bordered Pit
111
43 Evolution from Tracheids to Libriform Fibers
112
44 Tracheids of Vesselless Dicotyledons
116
45 True Tracheids in VesselBearing Dicotyledons
119
46 FiberTracheids
125
47 Libriform Fibers
129
48 Septate Fibers and Living Fibers
134
49 Fiber Dimorphism
137
410 Fiber Distribution Anomalies
138
411 Vascular Tracheids
139
412 Vasicentric Tracheids
141
413 Reaction Wood
151
414 Trabeculae
154
416 Excluded Types of Imperforate Tracheary Elements
155
5 Axial Parenchyma
157
52 Types of Axial Parenchyma Distribution
158
53 Pervasive Axial Parenchyma
172
54 Parenchyma Proliferation
175
Callus Cells Within Wood
181
Rays
183
62 Ray Dimensions
184
Cell Contents Secretory Structures
229
72 Cystoliths
252
73 Starch
253
74 Silica Bodies and Other Silica Deposits
255
75 Laticifers and Latex Deposits
259
76 Tanniniferous Tubules
261
77 Oil and Mucilage Cells
263
78 Cells with Amorphous Deposits
265
79 Intercellular Canals Secretory Canals
267
8 Cambial Variants Anomalous Secondary Growth
271
82 Successive Cambia the Lateral Meristem and Its Products
272
83 Interxylary Phloem Produced by a Single Cambium
279
84 Cambia Normal in Products But Abnormal in Conformation or Dispersion
282
85 Combinations of Cambial Variants
290
Cambial Ontogeny Storying Paedomorphosis Other Changes
297
93 Ray Ontogeny
307
95 Other Wood Phenomena Related to Cambial Ontogeny
314
Systematic Application of Wood Data
317
102 Types of Systematic Applications
318
103 Systematic Value of Particular Wood Features
324
104 Formats for Reporting Taxonomic Features of Woods
332
Evolution in Wood An EcologicalFunctional Synthesis
335
113 Irreversibility
350
114 Features Related to the Major Trends of Xylem Evolution but with Modifications
353
Conductive Efficiency and Safety
355
Features Related to Photosynthates
361
Mechanical Strength of Wood
363
Water Storage
364
Predation Deterrence
366
1110 Wood Features for Which Evolutionary Interpretation Is Uncertain
367
1111 Sequences of Evolutionary Changes with Respect to Ecology
368
1112 Methods for Relating Ecology to Wood Anatomy
373
1113 Ratios Indices Equations
376
1114 Measuring Ecology
378
References
381
Subject Index
411
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