Middle Chinese: A Study in Historical Phonology
Published in the early part of this century, Bernhard Karlgren's classic work Etudes sur la phonologie chinoise laid the foundation in western sinology for the scientific reconstruction of Chinese pronunciation. In this present study E.G. Pulleyblank gives the first full-scale review of Karlgren's work, taking into account advances in knowledge over the past fifty years in both the history of the Chinese language and in general linguistic theory. The introductory chapter gives a brief history of "Standard Chinese" and defines the author's own phonological theory based on the concept of distinctive features. Pulleyblank then applies this theory to a detailed analysis of Pekingese, the dialect base for contemporary Chinese. He follows this with a reconstruction of Late Middle Chinese (LMC) which depends on a new interpretation of the Four Grades (si deng) of the rhyme tables. This interpretation provides the key to the correct phonological structure of LMC and to an understanding of subsequent developments. Further chapters deal with the pre-Tang language, Early Middle Chinese (EMC). They contain a discussion of its sources as well as an actual reconstruction -- one which departs in fundamental ways from the traditional Karlgren system. A comparison of both EMC and LMC with Karlgren's "Ancient Chinese," as he called the Qieyun language, is given in one of the appendices to the book. A second appendix gives a new reconstruction of Early Mandarin (EM) of the 13th and 14th century as presented in the Zhongyuan yin yun, a rhyme dictionary of the early 14th century. This book constitutes the most comprehensive and challenging treatment of its subject since the pioneering work of Karlgren. It will be welcomed by specialists as an up-to-date and definitive statement of the views of one of the world's leading sinologists.
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affricates allophones alveolar articulation back initials Cantonese century Chaozhou colloquial complementary distribution consonants contrast corresponding to EMC dental departing tone dictionary diphthongs distinction earlier Early Mandarin entering tone evidence example fanqie feature forms fricative front vowel Fuzhou geng Glide Strengthening Go'on Grade II Grade II rhymes Grades III/IV Guangyun hekou high vowels iaak Japanese Kan'on Karlgren Korean labial initials language laryngeal layer Mandarin Manyogana medial merged merger Middle Chinese nasal Old Chinese palatal glide Pekingese phonetic phonological pronunciation Pulleyblank Qieyun reconstruction retroflex initials retroflex sibilants retroflexion rhyme categories rhyme group rhyme tables Ru zuo rusheng Sanskrit segment Shao Yong Shao Yong's Sino-Korean Sino-Vietnamese spelled spellers syllables Tang tongyong transcriptions Type B finals unrounded uvular velar velar initials Vietnamese voiced voiceless words Yunjing Zhen Zhongyuan yinyun