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abdomen acidity acute adaptation adequate stimuli adrenalin adrenals anaphylaxis anemia anesthetics anger animals anoci-association blood blood-pressure body brain brain pattern brain-cell changes cause cells clinical contact ceptors conversion of latent discharge of energy discharge of nervous disease distance ceptors effect emotional strain environment ether excision excitation exhaustion exophthalmic experiments fever final common path functions glycogen goiter Graves H-ion concentration histologic histologic changes hypothesis increased individual infection inhalation anesthesia insomnia kinetic chain kinetic energy kinetic system latent energy liver morphin motor acts motor mechanism muscles muscular action muscular exertion myxedema natural selection nerve nerve-muscular nervous energy nervous system neurasthenia nitrous oxid nociceptors normal organs pain patient phylogenetic association physical injury produced Purkinje cells Rabbit reaction receptors respiration response result Section of Cerebellum self-preservation sexual Sherrington shock skatol specific strychnin surgical shock temperature threshold thyroid extract thyroid gland ticklish points tion toxins trauma urinary bladder viscera
Page 26 - Fear is often preceded by astonishment, and is so far akin to it that both lead to the senses of sight and hearing being instantly aroused. In both cases the eyes and mouth are widely opened and the eyebrows raised.
Page 26 - This exudation is all the more remarkable as the surface is then cold, and hence the term a ' cold sweat; ' whereas the sudorific glands are properly excited into action when the surface is heated. The hairs also on the skin stand erect, and the superficial muscles shiver. In connection with the disturbed action of the heart, the breathing is hurried, the salivary glands act imperfectly, the mouth becomes dry, and is often opened and shut.
Page 62 - And now, though sitting at his desk in command of the complicated machinery of civilization, when he fears a business catastrophe his fear is manifested in the terms of his ancestral physical battle in the struggle for existence. He cannot fear intellectually, he cannot fear dispassionately, he fears with all his organs, and the same organs are stimulated and inhibited as if, instead of its being a battle of credit, or position, or of honor, it were a physical battle with teeth and claws.
Page 28 - As fear increases into an agony of terror, we behold, as under all violent emotions, diversified results. The heart beats wildly, or may fail to act and faintness ensue ; there is a death-like pallor ; the breathing is labored ; the wings of the nostrils are widely dilated; there is a gasping and convulsive motion of the lips, a tremor on the hollow cheek, a gulping and catching of the throat...
Page 76 - When our progenitors came in contact with any exciting element in their environment, action ensued then and there. There was much action — little restraint or emotion. Civilized man is really in auto-captivity. He is subjected to innumerable stimulations, but custom and convention frequently prevent physical action. When these stimulations are sufficiently strong but no action ensues, the reaction constitutes an emotion. A phylogenetic fight is anger ; a phylogenetic flight is fear ; a phylogenetic...
Page 181 - The problem of immunity is not considered here. As to the mechanism which produces fever, we postulate that it is the same mechanism as that which produces muscular activity. Muscular activity is produced by the conversion of latent energy into motion, and fever is produced largely in the muscles by the conversion of latent energy into heat.
Page 173 - Cleveland. 173 form of crude food which is refined by the digestive system; oxygen is taken to the blood and carbon dioxid is taken from the blood by the respiratory system; to and from the myriads of working cells of the body...
Page 28 - All the muscles of the body may become rigid, or may be thrown into convulsive movements. The hands are alternately clenched and opened, often with a twitching movement. The arms may be protruded, as if to avert some dreadful danger, or may be thrown wildly over the head. ... In other cases there is a sudden and uncontrollable tendency to headlong flight ; and so strong is this that the boldest soldiers may be seized with a sudden panic.
Page 174 - ... from the blood by the respiratory system ; to and from the myriads of working cells of the body, food and oxygen and waste are carried by the circulatory system ; the body is cleared of waste by the urinary system ; procreation is accomplished through the genital system ; but none of these systems are evolved primarily for the purpose of transforming potential energy into kinetic energy for specific ends. Each system transforms such amounts of potential into kinetic energy as are required to...
Page 28 - In other cases there is a sudden and uncontrollable tendency to headlong flight; and so strong is this that the boldest soldiers may be seized with a sudden panic. As fear rises to an extreme pitch, the dreadful scream of terror is heard. Great beads of sweat stand on the skin. All the muscles of the body are relaxed. Utter prostration soon follows, and the mental powers fail.