## Mantle Convection in the Earth and PlanetsMantle Convection in the Earth and Planets is a comprehensive synthesis of all aspects of mantle convection within the Earth, the terrestrial planets, the Moon, and the Galilean satellites of Jupiter. The book includes up-to-date discussions of the latest research developments that have revolutionized our understanding of the Earth and the planets. It is suitable as a text for graduate courses in geophysics and planetary physics, and as a supplementary reference for use at the undergraduate level. It is also an invaluable review for researchers in the broad fields of the Earth and planetary sciences including seismologists, tectonophysicists, geodesists, mineral physicists, volcanologists, geochemists, geologists, mineralogists, petrologists, paleomagnetists, planetary geologists, and meteoriticists. The book features a comprehensive index, an extensive reference list, numerous illustrations (many in color) and major questions that focus the discussion and suggest avenues of future research. |

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### Contents

Historical Background | 1 |

12 Continental Drift | 5 |

13 The Concept of Subsolidus Mantle Convection | 8 |

14 Paleomagnetism | 11 |

15 Seafloor Spreading | 12 |

16 Subduction and Area Conservation | 13 |

Plate Tectonics | 16 |

22 The Lithosphere | 25 |

88 Weakly Nonlinear Stability Theory | 367 |

Calculations of Convection in Two Dimensions | 376 |

92 Steady Convection at Large Rayleigh Number | 378 |

93 Internal Heat Sources and Time Dependence | 382 |

94 Convection with Surface Plates | 385 |

95 Role of Phase and Chemical Changes | 390 |

96 Effects of Temperature and Pressuredependent Viscosity | 393 |

Slab Strength | 396 |

23 Accretional Plate Margins Ocean Ridges | 26 |

24 Transform Faults | 28 |

25 Subduction | 29 |

26 Hot Spots and Mantle Plumes | 39 |

27 Continents | 42 |

28 Plate Motions | 48 |

29 The Driving Force for Plate Tectonics | 52 |

210 The Wilson Cycle and the Time Dependence of Plate Tectonics | 57 |

Structure and Composition of the Mantle | 63 |

33 The Crust | 68 |

34 The Upper Mantle | 74 |

35 The Transition Zone | 84 |

36 The Lower Mantle | 92 |

37 The D Layer and the CoreMantle Boundary | 94 |

38 The Core | 97 |

39 Threedimensional Structure of the Mantle | 101 |

Mantle Temperatures and Thermodynamic Properties | 118 |

42 Thermal Regime of the Oceanic Lithosphere | 132 |

43 Temperatures in the Continental Lithosphere | 143 |

44 Partial Melting and the Lowvelocity Zone | 151 |

45 Temperatures Partial Melting and Melt Migration Beneath Spreading Centers | 153 |

46 Temperatures in Subducting Slabs | 176 |

47 The Adiabatic Mantle | 188 |

48 Solidstate Phase Transformations and the Geotherm | 191 |

49 Temperatures in the Core and the D Layer | 200 |

410 Temperatures in the Transition Zone and Lower Mantle | 204 |

411 Thermodynamic Parameters | 207 |

Viscosity of the Mantle | 212 |

52 Global Isostatic Adjustment | 216 |

53 Changes in the Length of Day | 230 |

54 True Polar Wander | 231 |

55 Response to Internal Loads | 232 |

56 Incorporation of Surface Plate Motion | 237 |

57 Application of Inverse Methods | 238 |

58 Summary of Radial Viscosity Structure | 240 |

510 Viscosity Functions | 248 |

Basic Equations | 251 |

63 Stream Functions and Streamlines | 253 |

64 Conservation of Momentum | 254 |

65 NavierStokes Equations | 255 |

66 Vorticity Equation | 257 |

68 Thermodynamics | 259 |

69 Conservation of Energy | 262 |

610 Approximate Equations | 265 |

611 TwoDimensional Cartesian Boussinesq Infinite Prandtl Number Equations | 274 |

613 Gravitational Potential and the Poisson Equation | 279 |

614 Conservation of Momentum Equations in Cartesian Cylindrical and Spherical Polar Coordinates | 280 |

615 NavierStokes Equations in Cartesian Cylindrical and Spherical Polar Coordinates | 281 |

616 Conservation of Energy Equation in Cartesian Cylindrical and Spherical Polar Coordinates | 286 |

Linear Stability | 288 |

73 Plane Layer Heated from Below | 290 |

74 Plane Layer with a Univariant Phase Transition Heated from Below | 297 |

75 Plane Layer Heated from Within | 303 |

76 Semiinfinite Fluid with Depthdependent Viscosity | 307 |

77 Fluid Spheres and Spherical Shells | 308 |

78 Spherical Harmonics | 323 |

Approximate Solutions | 330 |

82 Eigenmode Expansions | 331 |

83 Lorenz Equations | 332 |

84 Higherorder Truncations | 337 |

85 Chaotic Mantle Mixing | 344 |

86 Boundary Layer Theory | 350 |

87 Singlemode Mean Field Approximation | 361 |

98 Mantle Plume Interaction with an Endothermic Phase Change | 401 |

99 NonNewtonian Viscosity | 404 |

910 Depthdependent Thermodynamic and Transport Properties | 405 |

911 Influence of Compressibility and Viscous Dissipation | 408 |

913 Convection in the D Layer | 413 |

Numerical Models of Threedimensional Convection | 417 |

102 Steady Symmetric Modes of Convection | 418 |

103 Unsteady Asymmetric Modes of Convection | 440 |

104 Mantle Avalanches | 454 |

105 Depthdependent Viscosity | 470 |

106 Twolayer Convection | 473 |

107 Compressibility and Adiabatic and Viscous Heating | 477 |

108 Platelike Rheology | 488 |

109 Threedimensional Models of Convection Beneath Ridges and Continents | 498 |

Hot Spots and Mantle Plumes | 499 |

112 Hot Spot Tracks | 501 |

113 Hot Spot Swells | 505 |

114 Hot Spot Basalts and Excess Temperature | 508 |

115 Hot Spot Energetics | 510 |

116 Evidence for Mantle Plumes from Seismology and the Geoid | 514 |

117 Plume Generation | 518 |

118 Plume Heads and Massive Eruptions | 525 |

119 Plume Conduits and Halos | 529 |

1110 Instabilities and Waves | 533 |

1111 Dynamic Support of Hot Spot Swells | 537 |

1112 PlumeRidge Interaction | 543 |

1113 Massive Eruptions and Global Change | 545 |

Chemical Geodynamics | 547 |

123 Oceanic Basalts and Their Mantle Reservoirs | 549 |

124 Simple Models of Geochemical Evolution | 551 |

125 Uranium Thorium Lead Systems | 565 |

126 Noble Gas Systems | 573 |

127 Isotope Systematics of Ocean Island Basalts | 580 |

128 Summary | 583 |

Thermal History of the Earth | 586 |

132 A Simple Thermal History Model | 587 |

133 More Elaborate Thermal Evolution Models | 602 |

134 Twolayer Mantle Convection and Thermal Evolution | 611 |

135 Scaling Laws for Convection with Strongly Temperature Dependent Viscosity | 617 |

136 Episodicity in the Thermal Evolution of the Earth | 625 |

137 Continental Crustal Growth and Earth Thermal History | 627 |

Convection in the Interiors of Solid Planets and Moons | 633 |

142 Venus | 640 |

143 Mars | 681 |

144 The Moon | 716 |

145 Io | 736 |

146 Mercury | 748 |

147 Europa Ganymede and Callisto | 756 |

Nature of Convection in the Mantle | 767 |

152 Form of Downwelling | 774 |

153 Form of Upwelling | 778 |

154 Horizontal Boundary Layers | 782 |

155 The General Circulation | 784 |

156 Time Dependence | 786 |

157 Special Effects in Mantle Convection | 787 |

158 Plates and Continents | 791 |

159 Comparative Planetology | 792 |

797 | |

Table of Variables | 875 |

Author Index | 893 |

913 | |

### Other editions - View all

Mantle Convection in the Earth and Planets Gerald Schubert,Donald Lawson Turcotte,Peter Olson No preview available - 2001 |

### Common terms and phrases

adiabatic anomalies asthenosphere basalts beneath buoyancy calculations composition conduction constant continental crust continental lithosphere cooling core-mantle boundary crustal deformation density dependence depth dimensionless downflows downwelling dynamic Earth Earth's mantle endothermic endothermic phase change equation fluid fraction geoid given global gravity heat flux heterogeneity horizontal hot spot increase inner core internal heating isothermal isotope lithosphere lower mantle lunar magma mantle convection mantle plumes mantle viscosity Mars Martian mass MORB occurs oceanic crust oceanic lithosphere olivine parameter partial melting phase change phase transition planet plate tectonics pressure radial radiogenic radius ratio Rayleigh number region rheology ridge rocks Schubert seafloor seismic discontinuity shear shown in Figure slab solid solution spherical harmonic spherical shell stress structure subduction zones Tackley thermal boundary layer thermal convection thermal evolution thermal history model thickness three-dimensional topography transition zone Turcotte upper mantle upwelling values variations Venus viscosity volcanism whole mantle Yuen