Mantle Convection in the Earth and Planets

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Cambridge University Press, 2001 - Science - 940 pages
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Mantle Convection in the Earth and Planets is a comprehensive synthesis of all aspects of mantle convection within the Earth, the terrestrial planets, the Moon, and the Galilean satellites of Jupiter. The book includes up-to-date discussions of the latest research developments that have revolutionized our understanding of the Earth and the planets. It is suitable as a text for graduate courses in geophysics and planetary physics, and as a supplementary reference for use at the undergraduate level. It is also an invaluable review for researchers in the broad fields of the Earth and planetary sciences including seismologists, tectonophysicists, geodesists, mineral physicists, volcanologists, geochemists, geologists, mineralogists, petrologists, paleomagnetists, planetary geologists, and meteoriticists. The book features a comprehensive index, an extensive reference list, numerous illustrations (many in color) and major questions that focus the discussion and suggest avenues of future research.
 

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Contents

Historical Background
1
12 Continental Drift
5
13 The Concept of Subsolidus Mantle Convection
8
14 Paleomagnetism
11
15 Seafloor Spreading
12
16 Subduction and Area Conservation
13
Plate Tectonics
16
22 The Lithosphere
25
88 Weakly Nonlinear Stability Theory
367
Calculations of Convection in Two Dimensions
376
92 Steady Convection at Large Rayleigh Number
378
93 Internal Heat Sources and Time Dependence
382
94 Convection with Surface Plates
385
95 Role of Phase and Chemical Changes
390
96 Effects of Temperature and Pressuredependent Viscosity
393
Slab Strength
396

23 Accretional Plate Margins Ocean Ridges
26
24 Transform Faults
28
25 Subduction
29
26 Hot Spots and Mantle Plumes
39
27 Continents
42
28 Plate Motions
48
29 The Driving Force for Plate Tectonics
52
210 The Wilson Cycle and the Time Dependence of Plate Tectonics
57
Structure and Composition of the Mantle
63
33 The Crust
68
34 The Upper Mantle
74
35 The Transition Zone
84
36 The Lower Mantle
92
37 The D Layer and the CoreMantle Boundary
94
38 The Core
97
39 Threedimensional Structure of the Mantle
101
Mantle Temperatures and Thermodynamic Properties
118
42 Thermal Regime of the Oceanic Lithosphere
132
43 Temperatures in the Continental Lithosphere
143
44 Partial Melting and the Lowvelocity Zone
151
45 Temperatures Partial Melting and Melt Migration Beneath Spreading Centers
153
46 Temperatures in Subducting Slabs
176
47 The Adiabatic Mantle
188
48 Solidstate Phase Transformations and the Geotherm
191
49 Temperatures in the Core and the D Layer
200
410 Temperatures in the Transition Zone and Lower Mantle
204
411 Thermodynamic Parameters
207
Viscosity of the Mantle
212
52 Global Isostatic Adjustment
216
53 Changes in the Length of Day
230
54 True Polar Wander
231
55 Response to Internal Loads
232
56 Incorporation of Surface Plate Motion
237
57 Application of Inverse Methods
238
58 Summary of Radial Viscosity Structure
240
510 Viscosity Functions
248
Basic Equations
251
63 Stream Functions and Streamlines
253
64 Conservation of Momentum
254
65 NavierStokes Equations
255
66 Vorticity Equation
257
68 Thermodynamics
259
69 Conservation of Energy
262
610 Approximate Equations
265
611 TwoDimensional Cartesian Boussinesq Infinite Prandtl Number Equations
274
613 Gravitational Potential and the Poisson Equation
279
614 Conservation of Momentum Equations in Cartesian Cylindrical and Spherical Polar Coordinates
280
615 NavierStokes Equations in Cartesian Cylindrical and Spherical Polar Coordinates
281
616 Conservation of Energy Equation in Cartesian Cylindrical and Spherical Polar Coordinates
286
Linear Stability
288
73 Plane Layer Heated from Below
290
74 Plane Layer with a Univariant Phase Transition Heated from Below
297
75 Plane Layer Heated from Within
303
76 Semiinfinite Fluid with Depthdependent Viscosity
307
77 Fluid Spheres and Spherical Shells
308
78 Spherical Harmonics
323
Approximate Solutions
330
82 Eigenmode Expansions
331
83 Lorenz Equations
332
84 Higherorder Truncations
337
85 Chaotic Mantle Mixing
344
86 Boundary Layer Theory
350
87 Singlemode Mean Field Approximation
361
98 Mantle Plume Interaction with an Endothermic Phase Change
401
99 NonNewtonian Viscosity
404
910 Depthdependent Thermodynamic and Transport Properties
405
911 Influence of Compressibility and Viscous Dissipation
408
913 Convection in the D Layer
413
Numerical Models of Threedimensional Convection
417
102 Steady Symmetric Modes of Convection
418
103 Unsteady Asymmetric Modes of Convection
440
104 Mantle Avalanches
454
105 Depthdependent Viscosity
470
106 Twolayer Convection
473
107 Compressibility and Adiabatic and Viscous Heating
477
108 Platelike Rheology
488
109 Threedimensional Models of Convection Beneath Ridges and Continents
498
Hot Spots and Mantle Plumes
499
112 Hot Spot Tracks
501
113 Hot Spot Swells
505
114 Hot Spot Basalts and Excess Temperature
508
115 Hot Spot Energetics
510
116 Evidence for Mantle Plumes from Seismology and the Geoid
514
117 Plume Generation
518
118 Plume Heads and Massive Eruptions
525
119 Plume Conduits and Halos
529
1110 Instabilities and Waves
533
1111 Dynamic Support of Hot Spot Swells
537
1112 PlumeRidge Interaction
543
1113 Massive Eruptions and Global Change
545
Chemical Geodynamics
547
123 Oceanic Basalts and Their Mantle Reservoirs
549
124 Simple Models of Geochemical Evolution
551
125 Uranium Thorium Lead Systems
565
126 Noble Gas Systems
573
127 Isotope Systematics of Ocean Island Basalts
580
128 Summary
583
Thermal History of the Earth
586
132 A Simple Thermal History Model
587
133 More Elaborate Thermal Evolution Models
602
134 Twolayer Mantle Convection and Thermal Evolution
611
135 Scaling Laws for Convection with Strongly Temperature Dependent Viscosity
617
136 Episodicity in the Thermal Evolution of the Earth
625
137 Continental Crustal Growth and Earth Thermal History
627
Convection in the Interiors of Solid Planets and Moons
633
142 Venus
640
143 Mars
681
144 The Moon
716
145 Io
736
146 Mercury
748
147 Europa Ganymede and Callisto
756
Nature of Convection in the Mantle
767
152 Form of Downwelling
774
153 Form of Upwelling
778
154 Horizontal Boundary Layers
782
155 The General Circulation
784
156 Time Dependence
786
157 Special Effects in Mantle Convection
787
158 Plates and Continents
791
159 Comparative Planetology
792
References
797
Table of Variables
875
Author Index
893
Subject Index
913
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