Friend or Foe: Friendly Fire at Sea 1939-1945
During the Second World War, there were over 100 instances of naval engagements between ships, submarines and aircraft of the same side. In the past there has often been a reluctance by the authorities to admit to these losses but with operational records now available, it is possible for historians to explain how a good number of ships and submarines were attacked, damaged or sunk by the forces of their own side.
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1 The Problem
2 The Search for a Solution
3 Ships vs Ships
4 Aircraft vs Ships
5 Aircraft vs Ships ii Ships vs Aircraft
6 Ships vs Submarines
7 Aircraft vs Submarines
8 Aircraft vs Submarines ii
Other editions - View all
Admiral Sir aircrew American submarines Asdic astern Atlantic attack Battle Board of Enquiry boat bridge British submarine Britomart Captain carrier challenge coast Commanding Ofﬁcer conﬁrm conning tower convoy crew cruiser damage deck depth charges destroyer HMS dived enemy escort explosion Falklands ﬁred ﬁring ﬁrst ﬁve Fleet Flotilla forces French friendly aircraft friendly fire friendly ships German HMS Britomart HMS Garth HMS Seagull HMS Sheffield HMS Truant Hunt class destroyer identiﬁed identify incident Italian Japanese knots Kriegsmarine later LCUs Lieutenant Commander lookouts Lt Cdr Luftwaffe marine merchant ships miles minesweepers Moquese MTBs naval navigation night O’Kane opened ﬁre operations ordered patrol area periscope port position radar rammed range Rear Admiral recognition signal reply reported Royal Navy sailed sank ship’s side sighted signalman sinking speed staff starboard submarine’s sunk surface survivors Swordﬁsh target torpedo trawlers U-boat yards