Nature and the Environment in Pre-Columbian American Life
Prehistoric North Americans lived on, in, and surrounded by nature. As a result, everything they were resulted from this co-existence. From interpersonal relations to supernatural beliefs, from housing size and function to the food they ate and clothing they wore, the life of Native Americans before the arrival of Europeans was intimately intertwined with the environment. What is known about these societies is often sketchy at best, having survived largely through archaeological remains and oral tradition. Scholars have tried to understand Native American history on its own terms, trying to understand who and what they were in reality - a complex, diverse multitude of populations that defined themselves entirely through what they saw, heard, and experienced everyday - their natural environment. Nature and the Environment in Pre-Columbian American Life provides an overview of all aspects of how native peoples interacted with the environment: BL How did prehistoric North Americans use their knowledge of the environment to hunt and gather for food, or raise crops? BL What was the interaction between humans and animals? BL How did Native Americans find entertainment and leisure in their environments? BL How and where did people live in conjunction with and often in spite of the elements? This accessible resource provides an excellent introduction for those needing a first step to researching the daily lives of Native Americans in the centuries before the arrival of Europeans.
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Natural Cooperation in the Environment
Cultivating a Living out of the Environment
Live and Let Live
Hunting and Gathering
Religious Beliefs and Practices
Migration and Transportation
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adaptation agricultural American Indian analysis Anasazi ancient animals Apache archaeological Archaic period areas artistic atlatl bear beliefs Beringia bison buffalo Cahokia carved ceremonies Chaco Canyon changes climate Clovis Clovis culture Coast coastal connection continent created crops Dance desert dogs earth environmental European contact everything evidence example extended family farming fishing foraging function gender helped Hopi human hunter-gatherer hunters hunting and gathering important individual interaction Inuit kiva land leisure lived Mexico migration Mississippian culture native culture native societies natural environment Navajo North America Paleo-Indian people’s plains plants played poles population practices prairie pre-Columbian prehistoric prehistoric Native Pueblo region religious rituals River role scholars seasonal Sinagua skills social Southwest spear spirits story structure successful suggests survival symbolic tepee tion today’s totem tradition tribal tribes Two-Spirit understanding unique village weapon Western winter women Woodland Woodland period