Naval Institute Proceedings, Volume 13
General Books, 2010 - 598 pages
This historic book may have numerous typos and missing text. Purchasers can download a free scanned copy of the original book (without typos) from the publisher. Not indexed. Not illustrated. 1887 edition. Excerpt: ... such vapor-laden air carried into the molten steel would increase in volume for a given increment of temperature very much more than dry air, and would therefore correspondingly increase the size and number of the " blow holes." Furthermore, this vapor of water does not act to this end altogether through its expansion under the influence of heat, for some, if not all of it, is decomposed by the high temperature, and its oxygen, together with that of the accompanying air, is absorbed by the walls of the cavities. This produces the iridescence observed, and leaves in the " blow holes " an atmosphere composed mainly of hydrogen and nitrogen; and it is not at all improbable that in many cases this decomposition of the watery vapor did not take place until the steel was so far solidified as to prevent the walls of the cavities yielding to any great extent, and, under such circumstances, the gases named would be under a very considerable tension. This view is confirmed by the investigations of Prof. F. C. G. Miiller of Brandenburg, who found that the mean composition of the gases in the " blow holes " was Hydrogen 79 per cent. Nitrogen 19 " Carbonic oxide 2 " 100 and that their average pressure was 120 pounds per square inch. It is of course possible that some of the gases found in the " blow holes " of Bessemer steel ingots may have found lodgment in the steel during the process of " conversion," more especially when steam is admitted with the blast for the purpose of keeping down the temperature of a " hot blow." In this case the steam would certainly be decomposed, and some of the residual hydrogen might remain entangled in the metal; although doubtless much the larger portion owing to its great levity, would escape during the pouring of the steel...
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