## The essentials of political analysis |

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### Contents

The Definition and Measurement of Concepts | 7 |

Measuring and Describing Variables | 26 |

Proposing Explanations Framing Hypotheses and Making Comparisons | 44 |

Copyright | |

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### Common terms and phrases

abortion American National Election average bar chart calculated causal Chapter characteristic chi-square coded column concept control group control variable controlled comparison cross-tabulation degrees of freedom describe dummy egalitarianism empirical equal estimate example explanation f-distribution favor female Figure frequency gender gun-control opinions higher hypothetical income increase independent variable individuals inferential interaction interval-level variable level of measurement likelihood line chart linear logged odds logistic regression male mean comparison measure of association median National Election Study negative normal distribution null hypothesis observed odds of voting ordinal variables P-value partial effect partisan strength partisanship party pattern pendent variable percentage political research population mean prediction error probability of voting question R-square random error random sampling error regression analysis regression coefficient Republicans respondents sample mean sample statistic scale score spurious relationship standard deviation standard error Table tion turnout units of analysis validity variable's voters women