The Expanding Universe: Astronomy's 'Great Debate', 1900-1931
In the years between 1900 and 1931 astronomers witnessed three startling changes in their view of the Universe. First, the accepted value of the size of the star system, which increased by a factor of ten; secondly, evidence forced the acceptance of the fact that there are other star systems beyond our own Galaxy; and lastly, that observation of these external galaxies disclosed the expansion of the Universe. This book, originally published in 1982, describes and explains in detail these shifts in opinion, considering them in the light of theories and ideas on the nature of the Universe, were current at the beginning of the twentieth century. Archive material is used to provide major interpretations of several of the processes and events associated with these shifts such as the 'Great Debate' between Harlow Shapley and H. D. Curtis in 1920 on 'The scale of the Universe'. This book with be of interest to professional and amateur astronomers as well as historians of science.
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Spectra of spiral nebulae
Globular clusters as island universes
Novae in spirals
Shapleys model of the Galaxy and the Great Debate
Support of the island universe theory
Opposition to the island universe theory
The development of the island universe theory 1925
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absolute magnitudes accepted Adams analysis Andromeda Nebula apparent apparent magnitudes argued Astron Astrophys astrophysics believed Berendzen brightness calculated Campbell centre Cepheid variables comparable-galaxy cosmology Curtis Curtis's Debate density derived detected diameter distance indicators early Eddington Einstein elliptical estimate external galaxies extragalactic nebulae galactic system globular clusters gravitational Hale Harvard Hertzsprung Hetherington Hubble to H Hubble's Humason hypothesis internal motions International Astronomical Union investigations island universe theory Jeans Jeans's Kapteyn Lemaitre's Lick Lick Observatory light Lindblad linear relation Lowell luminosity Lundmark Maanen Maanen's measures mathematical Messier Milky Mount Wilson novae observations Observatory Oort open clusters paper period-luminosity photographic plates proper motions radial velocities redshift redshift-distance relation relativity Reynolds rotation Russell scheme Seares seems Shapley to H Shapley's model shift Silberstein Sitter Slipher Small Magellanic Cloud solar motion space spectral spiral nebulae star clouds stellar system studies telescope term told Shapley Trumpler wrote