Made-up Minds: A Constructivist Approach to Artificial Intelligence
Made-Up Minds addresses fundamental questions of learning and concept invention by means of an innovative computer program that is based on the cognitive-developmental theory of psychologist Jean Piaget. Drescher uses Piaget's theory as a source of inspiration for the design of an artificial cognitive system called the schema mechanism, and then uses the system to elaborate and test Piaget's theory. The approach is original enough that readers need not have extensive knowledge of artificial intelligence, and a chapter summarizing Piaget assists readers who lack a background in developmental psychology.
The schema mechanism learns from its experiences, expressing discoveries in its existing representational vocabulary, and extending that vocabulary with new concepts. A novel empirical learning technique, marginal attribution, can find results of an action that are obscure because each occurs rarely in general, although reliably under certain conditions. Drescher shows that several early milestones in the Piagetian infant's invention of the concept of persistent object can be replicated by the schema mechanism.
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achieve activation applicable schema artificial intelligence assertion behavior body-relative position broadcast build built-in chain of schemas chicken-and-egg problem cognitive component composite action concept conjunction connectionist constructivist constructs context conditions coordination correlation corresponding crossbar delegated value empirical learning Eurisko example explicit extended context extended result fanout foveal function getian given glance actions glance orientation goal grasp grue hand actions haptic host schema human implementation incremental inductive reasoning infant initial innate inputs instantiation item's items designate knowledge learning mechanism machinery manifestation marginal attribution microworld modules moving the hand nism overriding conditions particular persistent Piaget Piagetian development primitive items problem proprioceptive proximity region relevance reliable schema represent representation sche schema in figure schema mechanism schema mechanism's schema's context schema's result sensorimotor sensory simulated situation-action slot specific stage structures subactivation synthetic item tactile target-frame theory tion Turing machine turn virtual mechanism visual field