Blood Narrative: Indigenous Identity in American Indian and Maori Literary and Activist Texts
Blood Narrative is a comparative literary and cultural study of post-World War II literary and activist texts by New Zealand Maori and American Indians—groups who share much in their responses to European settler colonialism. Chadwick Allen reveals the complex narrative tactics employed by writers and activists in these societies that enabled them to realize unprecedented practical power in making both their voices and their own sense of indigeneity heard.
Allen shows how both Maori and Native Americans resisted the assimilationist tide rising out of World War II and how, in the 1960s and 1970s, they each experienced a renaissance of political and cultural activism and literary production that culminated in the formation of the first general assembly of the World Council of Indigenous Peoples. He focuses his comparison on two fronts: first, the blood/land/memory complex that refers to these groups' struggles to define indigeneity and to be freed from the definitions of authenticity imposed by dominant settler cultures. Allen's second focus is on the discourse of treaties between American Indians and the U.S. government and between Maori and Great Britain, which he contends offers strong legal and moral bases from which these indigenous minorities can argue land and resource rights as well as cultural and identity politics.
With its implicit critique of multiculturalism and of postcolonial studies that have tended to neglect the colonized status of indigenous First World minorities, Blood Narrative will appeal to students and scholars of literature, American and European history, multiculturalism, postcolonialism, and comparative cultural studies.
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PART I A Directed SelfDetermination
PART II An Indigenous Renaissance
Declaring a Fourth World
Integrated Time Line World War II to 1980
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activists and writers Alcatraz American Indian ancestors Aotearoa/New Zealand argues assert blood memory blood/land/memory complex Bronson carved colonial conﬂict contemporary indigenous contemporary Maori context D’Arcy McNickle deﬁne deﬁnition Deloria Department of Maori developed di√erent dominant e√ect e√orts elder English federal ﬁction ﬁgure ﬁnal ﬁrst Fourth World Gerald Vizenor Hone Tuwhare Ihimaera’s Indian A√airs indige indigenous identity indigenous minority Kerewin Kiowa literary living Maori A√airs Maori and American Maori and Pakeha Maori community Maori culture Maori identity Maori language Maoritanga marae McNickle’s Momaday Momaday’s narrative tactics narrator Navajo ncai nonﬁction novel o√ers o≈cial Osage Pakeha patu poetry political postcolonial theory potential Publication published Ranginui Walker Schwimmer Scott Momaday signiﬁcant Sioux speciﬁc spiritual stories taonga TeAo Hou texts tion traditional treaty discourse Treaty of Waitangi tribal tribes U.S. Congress United Vizenor Waitangi Tribunal wcip wcip’s whare tipuna winter count Witi Ihimaera Wounded Knee writing Zealand Maori